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References to Euphorbiaceae

These references are mainly related to the many biochemical substances found in the Euphorbiaceae, their toxicity and potential uses. It is not intended to cover descriptve or taxonomic material. Use the FIND function in your browser to search for the word in which you are interested. A more complete search is possible using Google.
Right: Candelilla plant (Euphorbia antisyphyllitica)
Euphorbia antisyphillitica
habitat photograph: RJ Hodgkiss
1: J Med Chem  2002 Jun 6;45(12):2425-31

Discovery and biological evaluation of a new family of potent modulators of
multidrug resistance: reversal of multidrug resistance of mouse lymphoma cells
by new natural jatrophane diterpenoids isolated from euphorbia species.

Hohmann J, Molnar J, Redei D, Evanics F, Forgo P, Kalman A, Argay G, Szabo P.

Departments of Pharmacognosy, Medical Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Analysis, and
Organic Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary, and Institute
of Chemistry, Chemical Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525
Budapest, Hungary.

The effects of 15 jatrophane diterpene polyesters (1-3 and 5-16) isolated from
lipophilic extracts of Euphorbia serrulata, E. esula, E. salicifolia, and E.
peplus (Euphorbiaceae) on the reversion of multidrug resistance of mouse
lymphoma cells were examined. The structures of five new compounds (1-5) were
elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including HRFABMS, ESIMS, (1)H-(1)H
homonuclear and (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear correlations, long-range correlation
spectra, and NOESY experiments. The stereochemistry and absolute configuration
of one compound (3) were determined by X-ray crystallography. The
structure-activity relationship is discussed.

PMID: 12036352 [PubMed - in process]

2: Planta  2002 May;215(1):41-50 

Characterization of germination-specific lipid transfer proteins from Euphorbia

Edqvist J, Farbos I.

Department of Plant Biology, SLU, Box 7080, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden,

The endosperm of Euphorbia lagascae Spreng. seeds contains high levels of the
epoxidated fatty acid vernolic acid ( cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid). To
obtain transgenic oilcrops producing high levels of vernolic acid, better
knowledge of its endogenous metabolism is needed. In this paper we study the
gene activities involved in the mobilization and oxidation of vernolic acid
during germination. A cDNA library was constructed from mRNA isolated from
germinating E. lagascae seeds. Over 300 cDNA clones were partially characterized
by DNA sequencing. Of the sequenced cDNAs, 18% encoded proteins with a putative
function related to the metabolism of lipids or fatty acids. Among these cDNAs
were genes coding for lipase, thiolase, acyl-CoA reductase and epoxide
hydrolase. Of the sequenced clones, 4.5% encoded lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs),
indicating the high abundance of such proteins during germination. We isolated
the full-length sequences of the E. lagascae cDNAs encoding the LTPs ElLTP1 and
ElLTP2. These proteins share only 38% identity, but both show high similarity to
LTPs from other plant species. Both sequences contain eight cysteine residues,
which are conserved in most plant LTPs. Expression analysis revealed that both
genes were specifically expressed during germination.

PMID: 12012240 [PubMed - in process]

3: Pest Manag Sci  2002 May;58(5):479-82 

Molluscicidal and anti-feedant activities of diterpenes from Euphorbia paralias

Abdelgaleil SA, el-Aswad AF, Nakatani M.

Pesticide Chemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Elshatby), Alexandria
University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Nine known diterpene polyesters of segetanes, jatrophenes and paralianes have
been isolated from the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. The molluscicidal
activity of isolated compounds was evaluated on Biomphalaria alexandrina
(Ehrenberg). Paraliane diterpene,
hydroxy-9-oxo-paraliane, was the most potent compound against the snail.
Anti-feedant activity was tested by a conventional leaf disc method against
third-instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd). Jatrophene diterpene,
dioxojatropha-6(17)-11E-diene, had the highest anti-feedant activity among the
compounds tested.

PMID: 11997975 [PubMed - in process]

4: J Environ Manage  2002 Feb;64(2):153-69 

Evaluation of a forage allocation model for Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

Irby LR, Norland JE, Westfall JA Jr, Sullivan MA.

Ecology Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA.

We developed a forage allocation model using a deterministic, linear
optimization module in a commercially available spreadsheet package to help
resource managers in Theodore Roosevelt National Park (TRNP), North Dakota
determine optimum numbers of four ungulate species, bison (Bison bison), elk
(Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and feral horses, in the
Park. TRNP staff actively managed bison, elk, and feral horse numbers within
bounds suggested by our model from 1983 to 1996. During this period, we measured
vegetation at 8 grassland and 12 wooded sites at 1-3 year intervals to determine
if model solutions were appropriate for maintaining stable conditions in
important plant communities in the Park. The data we recorded at these sites
indicated minimal change in plant communities from 1983 to 1996. Changes in most
vegetation categories that we expected when animal numbers exceeded model
optimums for short periods (decreases in coverage/stem numbers of palatable
plant species, increases in bare ground or unpalatable plant species) did not
occur consistently under high or low precipitation conditions. The lack of
sensitivity of our model to decreases in overall production of palatable plant
species that occurred due to drought, fire, expansion of black-tailed prairie
dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies, and the spread of leafy spurge (Euphorbia
esula) in areas of the Park where we did not have monitoring sites suggested
that the model under-estimated the total number of ungulates that the Park could
support. Management for population levels of ungulates defined by the model
probably led to over protection of common plant communities and insufficient
protection of rare plant communities. Detecting changes in rare plant
communities could have been accomplished by re-designing our vegetation
monitoring program, but changing emphasis to protection of rare plants would
have likely promoted under use of grazing-tolerant habitat types,
dissatisfaction in tourists visiting the Park to see large mammals, and large
increases in cost and intrusiveness of management activities such as fencing and
control of ungulate populations. The model was a flawed representation of
grazing dynamics in TRNP, but we believe it succeeded in making management
personnel aware of the biological constraints they face when making management

PMID: 11995238 [PubMed - in process]

5: Hautarzt  2002 Mar;53(3):192-5 

[Article in German]

Thumm EJ, Bayerl C, Goerdt S.

Klinik fur Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Klinikum Mannheim gGmbH,
Universitatsklinikum, Fakultat fur Klinische Medizin Mannheim,
Ruprecht-Karls-Universitat Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim.

We describe a 36-year-old female patient with angioedema-like swellings and
rhinoconjunctivitis for 1 year occurring exclusively at her home. The clinical
history revealed no correlation with foods, food additives, drugs, or
aeroallergens. The complaints always started immediately after contact with the
sandbox tree (Hura crepitans) placed in her apartment. Scratch testing resulted
in a two-fold positive reaction towards leaves and stem, while five controls
remained negative. Thus we suggest the reaction of the patient to be allergic in
nature. Hura crepitans belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae, whose largest
genera are Euphorbia and Croton. The toxic reactions to the milky sap, the
so-called latex, of these plants are caused by ingredients such as phorbol
esters, croton oil, lectins, and terpens. Various terpens are also well known as
allergens. Phytotoxic and phytoallergic reactions are growing increasingly
important and should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis in

PMID: 11974592 [PubMed - in process]

6: Acta Pharm Hung  2001 Oct;71(3):289-92 

[New diterpene polyesters isolated from Hungarian Euphorbia species]

[Article in Hungarian]

Evanics F, Hohmann J, Redei D, Vasas A, Gunther G, Dombi G.

Sixteen new diterpene polyesters were isolated and identified from Hungarian
Euphorbiaceae species. Two of them (21, 23) are based on formerly unknown
diterpene core. The structures of three jatrophane type diterpene heptaester
were elucidated (1, 3, 6), which are diterpenoids with the highest degree of
esterification identified from this plant family. Some of the isolated compounds
have pharmacological effects, others are under testing now.

PMID: 11961895 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Plant Physiol  2002 Apr;128(4):1439-46 

Molecular analysis of signals controlling dormancy and growth in underground
adventitious buds of leafy spurge.

Horvath DP, Chao WS, Anderson JV.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service,
Biosciences Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 5674, State University Station, Fargo,
North Dakota 58105-5674.

Dormancy and subsequent regrowth of adventitious buds is a critical
physiological process for many perennial plants. We have used the expression of
hormone and cell cycle-responsive genes as markers to follow this process in
leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). In conjunction with earlier studies, we show
that loss of mature leaves results in decreased sugar levels and increased
gibberellin perception in underground adventitious buds. Gibberellin is
sufficient for induction of S phase-specific but not M phase-specific gene
expression. Loss of both apical and axillary buds or inhibition of polar auxin
transport did not result in induction of S phase- or M phase-specific gene
expression. Loss of polar auxin transport was necessary for continuation of the
cell cycle and further bud development if the S phase was previously initiated.

PMID: 11950992 [PubMed - in process]

8: Yao Xue Xue Bao  1998;33(2):128-31 

[Studies on diterpenoids from the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang W, Ding X.

Institute of Materia Medica, Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan 250062.

Euphorbia ebractolata has been used as insecticide and tuberculocide. Four
crystalline compounds were isolated from the root of this plant. They were
characterized by their physico-chemical properties and spectral data as: 3-acety
alpha-amyrin (I), Jolkinolide B (II), ebracteolatanolide A (III) and
ebracteolatanolide B (IV). I and II were isolated for the first time from E.
ebracteolata Hayata. III and IV are new compounds.

PMID: 11938948 [PubMed - in process]

9: Planta Med  2002 Mar;68(3):249-52 

Cytotoxic Diterpenoids from Euphorbia pekinensis.

Kong LY, Li Y, Wu XL, Min ZD.

Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University,
Nanjing, P.R.China.

A new diterpenoid, named euphpekinensin, along with three known diterpenoids,
was isolated from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis for the first time and the
structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. The 2D-NMR techniques such as
(1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra were mainly applied to determine
the structure of the new diterpenoid. The four diterpenoids showed cytotoxic
activity against human KB cells in vitro.

PMID: 11914963 [PubMed - in process]

10: Planta Med  2002 Mar;68(3):244-8 

New macrocyclic diterpenoids from Euphorbia esula.

Liu LG, Meng JC, Wu SX, Li XY, Zhao XC, Tan RX.

Institute of Functional Biomolecules, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing
University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

The structures of two new macrocyclic jatrophane diterpenoid esters from the
whole herb of Euphorbia esula, were established as
jatropha-6(17)-ene (1) and
-2alpha,8alpha,15beta-trihydroxy-13betaH-jatropha-6(17)-ene (2) by a combination
of 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques as well as UV, IR and mass spectral data. Bioassay
evaluation of all isolates against the human tumor cell lines (B16, KB, SMMC and
BGC) indicated that ester 2 was cytotoxic to B16 with the IC50 value being 1.81
microg/ml. In addition, the irritant activity assay indicated that both
diterpenoids were inactive (ID(24)50 > 100 microg/ear).

PMID: 11914962 [PubMed - in process]

11: Biochem Pharmacol  2002 Mar 1;63(5):951-7 

Jolkinolide B induces neuroendocrine differentiation of human prostate LNCaP
cancer cell line.

Liu WK, Ho JC, Qin G, Che CT.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong,
New Territories, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Euphorbia fischeriana is a Chinese herbal medicine which has been reported to
possess chemotherapeutic effects, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. In
order to understand its possible anti-tumor property, we have isolated a number
of chemical compounds from the roots of this plant [Phytochemistry 52 (1999)
117] and studied their in vitro effects by using human prostate LNCaP cancer
cell line. Among the six compounds tested, jolkinolide B exhibited the most
potent anti-proliferative activity (IC(50)=12.5 microg/mL=40 microM) and it
inhibited DNA synthesis by down-regulating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)
incorporation in LNCaP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Jolkinolide B, at
concentrations up to 25 microg/mL, induced G1 arrest and neuroendocrine
differentiation of LNCaP cells. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed the increased
expression of neuroendocrine markers, keratin 8/18 (K8/18) and neuron specific
enolase (NSE), in these cells. Apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation were
observed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry when the cells were
exposed to a concentration higher than 25 microg/mL jolkinolide B. Taken all
data together, jolkinolide B seems to play a role in the regulation of
proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of LNCaP cells.

PMID: 11911847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: J Nat Prod  2002 Feb;65(2):158-62 

Eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol ("antiquol C") and other triterpenes from
Euphorbia antiquorum latex and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus

Akihisa T, Kithsiri Wijeratne EM, Tokuda H, Enjo F, Toriumi M, Kimura Y, Koike
K, Nikaido T, Tezuka Y, Nishino H.

College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda Surugadai,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308, Japan.

The structures of three triterpene alcohols isolated from the latex of Euphorbia
antiquorum were established to be eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol (2; antiquol
C), 19(10-->9)abeo-8alpha,9beta,10alpha-eupha-5,24-dien-3beta-ol (3; antiquol
B), and 24-methyltirucalla-8,24(24(1))-dien-3beta-ol (4; euphorbol) on the basis
of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3 and 4 have previously been assigned the
erroneous structures of 10alpha-cucurbita-5,24-dien-3alpha-ol and
24-methyleupha-8,24(24(1))-dien-3beta-ol, respectively. Compounds 2-4 and four
other known compounds isolated from the latex, euphol (1),
lemmaphylla-7,21-dien-3beta-ol (5), isohelianol (6), and camelliol C (7), showed
potent inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA)
activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

PMID: 11858748 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13: Plant Physiol  2002 Feb;128(2):615-24 

Transgenic production of epoxy fatty acids by expression of a cytochrome P450
enzyme from Euphorbia lagascae seed.

Cahoon EB, Ripp KG, Hall SE, McGonigle B.

DuPont Crop Genetics, Experimental Station, Wilmington, DE 19880-0402, USA.

Seed oils of a number of Asteraceae and Euphorbiaceae species are enriched in
12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid (vernolic acid), an unusual 18-carbon
Delta(12)-epoxy fatty acid with potential industrial value. It has been
previously demonstrated that the epoxy group of vernolic acid is synthesized by
the activity of a Delta(12)-oleic acid desaturase-like enzyme in seeds of the
Asteraceae Crepis palaestina and Vernonia galamensis. In contrast, results from
metabolic studies have suggested the involvement of a cytochrome P450 enzyme in
vernolic acid synthesis in seeds of the Euphorbiaceae species Euphorbia
lagascae. To clarify the biosynthetic origin of vernolic acid in E. lagascae
seed, an expressed sequence tag analysis was conducted. Among 1,006 randomly
sequenced cDNAs from developing E. lagascae seeds, two identical expressed
sequence tags were identified that encode a cytochrome P450 enzyme classified as
CYP726A1. Consistent with the seed-specific occurrence of vernolic acid in E.
lagascae, mRNA corresponding to the CYP726A1 gene was abundant in developing
seeds, but was not detected in leaves. In addition, expression of the E.
lagascae CYP726A1 cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by production
of vernolic acid in cultures supplied with linoleic acid and an epoxy fatty acid
tentatively identified as 12-epoxyoctadeca-9,15-dienoic acid
(12-epoxy-18:2Delta(9,15)) in cultures supplied with alpha-linolenic acid.
Consistent with this, expression of CYP726A1 in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana
tabacum) callus or somatic soybean (Glycine max) embryos resulted in the
accumulation of vernolic acid and 12-epoxy-18:2Delta(9,15). Overall, these
results conclusively demonstrate that Asteraceae species and the Euphorbiaceae
E. lagascae have evolved structurally unrelated enzymes to generate the
Delta(12)-epoxy group of vernolic acid.

PMID: 11842164 [PubMed - in process]

14: Nat Prod Lett  2001;15(5):363-9 

Cycloartane triterpenes from Euphorbia tuckeyana.

Ferreira MJ, Pinto FC, Ascenso JR.

CECF, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.

Investigation of the acetone extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia tuckeyana
afforded a new cycloartane-type triterpene named as cyclotucanol. Its structure
was established as cycloartane-24-methylene-3beta,25-diol (1). The known
cycloartane triterpenes cycloeucalenol (2), 3beta-hydroxycycloart-25-en-24-one
(3), cycloart-25-ene-3beta,24-diol (4),
25,26,27-trisnor-3beta-hydroxycycloartan-24-al (5) and
cycloart-23-ene-3beta,25-diol (6) were also isolated and identified.

PMID: 11841121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Phytochemistry  2002 Feb;59(3):331-5 

Macrocyclic diterpenes from Euphorbia nivulia.

Ravikanth V, Niranjan Reddy VL, Prabhakar Rao T, Diwan PV, Ramakrishna S,
Venkateswarlu Y.

Natural Products Laboratory, Organic Chemistry Division-I, Indian Institute of
Chemical Technology, Hyderabad-500 007, India.

The latex of Euphorbia nivulia afforded two ingol diterpenes
3,12-diacetyl-8-benzoylingol (4) and 3,12-diacetyl-7-benzoyl-8-nicotinylingol
(5) along with three known ingol diterpenes 1, 2,and 3, and two known
triterpenes cycloart-25-en-3beta-ol and cyclonivulinol. Their structures have
been assigned on the basis of their structural data as well as their acetylated
products. The diterpenes 1-5 were tested for the LPS induced PGE(2) inhibition

PMID: 11830142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: J Chem Ecol  2001 Dec;27(12):2397-423 

Male-specific sesquiterpenes from Phyllotreta and Aphthona flea beetles.

Bartelt RJ, Cosse AA, Zilkowski BW, Weisleder D, Momany FA.

USDA Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization
Research, Peoria, Illinois 61604, USA.

It was previously reported that males of the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta
cruciferae, feeding on host foliage are attractive to both males and females in
the field. Based on this evidence for an aggregation pheromone, volatiles were
collected from male and female P. cruciferae feeding on cabbage (Brassica
oleracea) and analyzed. For comparison, volatiles were also collected from males
and females of three other flea beetle species, Aphthona flava, A. czwalinae,
and A. cyparissiae, all feeding on their host, leafy spurge foliage (Euphorbia
esula). Six male-specific compounds were isolated from P. cruciferae, and the
same compounds plus two additional ones were isolated from males of Aphthona
flava, A. czwalinae, and A. cyparissiae. The blends of compounds were relatively
consistent within species, but there were characteristic differences between
species. Compound structures were studied by mass spectrometry, NMR
spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, polarimetry, chiral and achiral gas
chromatography, molecular modeling, and microchemical tests. Three of the
compounds were identified as (+)-ar-himachalene; (+)-trans-alpha-himachalene;
(+)-y-cadinene. Two others were new enantiomers of himachalene hydrocarbons that
were previously identified from the fir trees, Abies alba and Abies
nordmanniana. Finally, there were two himachalene alcohols and one
norsesquiterpene ketone that is a himachalene analog. Only (+)-ar-himachalene
and (+)-y-cadinene are previously known natural products. Electrophysiological
activity was demonstrated for five of the compounds. The chemical and
electrophysiological patterns are consistent with, but do not prove, a
pheromonal function.

PMID: 11789948 [PubMed - in process]

17: Phytochemistry  2001 Dec;58(7):1135-9 

Diterpenoids from Euphorbia paralias.

Abdelgaleil SA, Kassem SM, Doe M, Baba M, Nakatani M.

Department of Pesticide Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria
University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Two segatane diterpenoids containing a bicyclic [4,3,1] ring system were
isolated, together with 11 known diterpenoids, four segetanes, five jatrophanes
and two paralianes, from the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias. The structures
of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means, including by 2D
NMR and CD spectroscopic analyses. The antifeedant and antiviral activities of
the isolated compounds are also described.

PMID: 11730879 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Phytochem Anal  2001 Jul-Aug;12(4):255-62 

HPLC-UV and HPLC-positive-ESI-MS analysis of the diterpenoid fraction from caper
spurge (Euphorbia lathyris) seed oil.

Bicchi C, Appendino G, Cordero C, Rubiolo P, Ortelli D, Veuthey JL.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, via Pietro Giuria 9, I-10125
Torino, Italy.

Caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris L.) seed oil contains a series of diterpenoids
known as Euphorbia factors, or L-factors, L1-L9. They are esters of several
polyols (lathyrol, epoxylathyrol, hydroxylathyrol and ingenol) and account for
about 3-5% of the oil. The percentage of ingenol-based L-factors is very low,
less than 5% of the diterpenoid fraction, but some of them (factors L5 and L6)
are responsible for the irritant and co-carcinogenic activities of the oil. This
paper reports an HPLC-UV and HPLC-positive-ESI-MS analysis of the diterpenoid
fraction of caper spurge seed oil before and after selective hydrolysis of
ingenol-based L-factors. Separation of lathyrane polyols and esters, and ingenol
and its esters was achieved using a chromatographic system consisting of a C18
stationary phase and acetonitrile: water as mobile phase. A new macrocyclic
constituent, the deoxy Euphorbia factor L1, was identified in the oil.

PMID: 11705332 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19: J Org Chem  1996 Mar 8;61(5):1707-1709 

Terracinolides A and B, Two Bishomoditerpene Lactones with a Novel Carbon
Framework from Euphorbia terracina.

Marco JA, Sanz-Cervera JF, Yuste A, Jakupovic J, Lex J.

Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot,
Valencia, Spain, Institut fur Organische Chemie, Technische Universitat Berlin,
D-10623 Berlin, Germany, and Institut fur Organische Chemie, Universitat Koln,
D-50939 Koln, Germany.

A methanolic extract of Euphorbia terracina L. has been shown to contain two
peracylated polyhydroxy terpenoid lactones with a novel C(22) carbon framework.
These metabolites, which have been named terracinolides A (1) and B (2), are
based on the same parent compound, but differ in the nature of one of the acyl
residues. This novel skeletal system is formally derived from the jatrophane
framework by addition of a two-carbon fragment on C-17 (jatrophane numbering).

PMID: 11667040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

20: Bot Mus Lealf Harv Univ  1978;26:277-309 

A neglected Mayan galactagogue, Ixbut (Euphorbia lancifolia).

Rosengarten F.

Publication Types:
Historical Article

PMID: 11619638 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21: J Ethnopharmacol  2001 Nov;78(1):1-5 

Enhanced antifungal activity of ketoconazole by Euphorbia characias latex
against Candida albicans.

Giordani R, Trebaux J, Masi M, Regli P.

Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Pharmacie, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385
Cedex 05, Marseille, France.

The in vitro suseptibility of Candida albicans to ketoconazole and Euphorbia
characias latex alone or in combination was tested using the macrobroth dilution
method. The MIC 80% of crude latex and ketoconazole are respectively 159 microg
protein/ml and 0.3901 microg/ml. This method permits us to determine an affinity
constant K(aff) for crude latex (0.015 microg(-1) protein ml) and ketoconazole
(23.828 microg(-1) ml). The utilization of a mixture of latex at several
concentrations (7.8-15.62-31.25-62.5 and 125 microg protein/ml) and ketoconazole
indicates a synergistic effect between latex and ketoconazole. For latex
concentrations of 31.25 and 62.5 microg protein/ml the MIC 80% of ketoconazole
were inferior (0.194 and 0.183 microg/ml respectively) to that obtained with
ketoconazole alone (0.390 microg/ml). A synergistic effect is therefore obtained
between ketoconazole on the one hand and two concentrations of Euphorbia
characias latex.

PMID: 11585681 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22: Planta Med  2001 Oct;67(7):672-4 

Cytotoxicities and anti-herpes simplex virus activities of diterpenes isolated
from Euphorbia species.

Mucsi I, Molnar J, Hohmann J, Redei D.

The cytotoxicities of nine diterpene polyesters obtained from Euphorbia species
were assayed by measuring their effects on the growth of Vero cells. Their
antiviral effects on the multiplication of Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)
were studied by using the virus yield reduction method in cell cultures. With
the exception of the strongly cytotoxic
sobutanoyloxy-9alpha-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene (CC(50) 3.5
microg/ml), all the tested diterpenes exhibited a pronounced or moderate
anti-herpes virus effect (IC(50) values between 2.5 and 8.3 microg/ml). The
observed HSV-2 inhibitory activities were not associated with virucidal effects.

Publication Types:

PMID: 11582549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23: Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd  2001 Aug;8(4):207-12 

Antiviral action of Euphorbium compositum and its components.

Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P.

Labor Dr. Glatthaar, Reutlingen.

INTRODUCTION: Euphorbium compositum SN (Biologische Heilmittel Heel GmbH,
Baden-Baden, Germany, a homeopathic combination preparation available in form of
drops, nasal spray, and injection solution), is prescribed for inflammation of
the mucosae of the nose and sinuses. Infections in these areas are primarily of
viral origin although bacterial superinfections are also common. OBJECTIVE: The
main question was whether or not this homeopathic remedy shows an activity
against viruses responsible for infections of the respiratory tract.
METHODS:This in vitro study using virus plaque reduction assays examined the
effect of Euphorbium compositum SN against pathogens causing various viral
infections: influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human
rhinovirus (HRV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). RESULTS: Analysis of
virus production after treatment of the infected cells with the remedy showed an
antiviral activity of Euphorbium compositum SN against RSV and HSV-1. In
addition, an antiviral effect against influenza A virus and HRV, though minimal,
was, also noted. Analyses of the plant-derived components of Euphorbium
compositum SN, e.g. Euphorbium resinifera, Pulsatilla pratensis and Luffa
operculata for their antiviral activity revealed a clear activity of Euphorbium
resinifera and Pulsatilla pratensis against RSV. In contrast, no effect was
detected using the same protocol with Luffa operculata. CONCLUSIONS: Euphorbium
resinifera and Pulsatilla pratensis as components of Euphorbium compositum SN
are responsible for its antiviral activity. Copyright 2001 S. Karger GmbH,

PMID: 11574744 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24: J Nat Prod  2001 Aug;64(8):1064-8 

New jatrophane diterpenoid esters from Euphorbia turczaninowii.

Liu LG, Tan RX.

Institute of Functional Biomolecules, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing
University, Nanjing 210093, People's Republic of China.

Five new (1-5) and one known (6) jatrophane diterpenoid esters were isolated
from the ethanol extract of the whole herb of Euphorbia turczaninowii. Their
structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute
stereochemistry of 3 beta,5 alpha,8 alpha,15 beta-tetraacetoxy-7
beta-benzoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-dien-9,14-dione (1) was confirmed by a
single-crystal X-ray analysis coupled with the exciton chirality circular
dichroism method. Compounds 1-6 were inactive when evaluated both in a mouse ear
inflammation assay and for cytotoxicity against the B16 mouse melanoma cell

PMID: 11520228 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25: Planta Med  2001 Aug;67(6):501-4 

Inhibitory activity for chitin synthase II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by
tannins and related compounds.

Hwang EI, Ahn BT, Lee HB, Kim YK, Lee KS, Bok SH, Kim YT, Kim SU.

Antibiotics Research Laboratory, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and
Biotechnology, Yusung, Taejon, Korea.

In the course of search for potent inhibitors of chitin synthase II from natural
resources, seven tannins and related compounds were isolated from the aerial
part of Euphorbia pekinensis and identified as gallic acid (1), methyl gallate
(2), 3-O-galloyl-(-)-shikimic acid (3), corilagin (4), geraniin (5),
quercetin-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside (6), and
kaempferol-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside (7). These and nine related
compounds, (-)-quinic acid (8), (-)-shikimic acid (9), ellagic acid (10),
kaempferol (11), quercetin (12), quercitrin (13), rutin (14),
quercetin-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-rutinoside (15) and
1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (16), were evaluated for the inhibitory
activity against chitin synthase II and III. They inhibited chitin synthase II
with IC(50) values of 18-206 microM, except for two organic acids, (-)-quinic
acid (8) and (-)-shikimic acid (9). Among them, 3-O-galloyl-(-)-shikimic acid
(3) was the most potent inhibitor against chitin synthase II of Saccharomyces
cerevisiae with an IC(50) value of 18 microM. The inhibition appears to be
selective for chitin synthase II, as they did not appreciably inhibit chitin
synthase III.

PMID: 11509967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26: Fitoterapia  2000 Sep;71(5):562-3 

Antinociceptive activity of Euphorbia heterophylla roots.

Vamsidhar I, Mohammed AH, Nataraj B, Madhusudana Rao C, Ramesh M.

K.M. College of Pharmacy, Madurai 625107, India.

Following an identified use of the plant as analgesic in traditional medicine,
the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla root
have been tested for antinociceptive activity in rats. All extracts showed
significant effects at doses of 150-300 mg/kg i.p.

PMID: 11449508 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27: Org Lett  2001 May 31;3(11):1609-12 

Unnatural natural products from the transannular cyclization of lathyrane

Appendino G, Tron GC, Jarevang T, Sterner O.

Universita del Piemonte Orientale, DiSCAFF, Viale Ferrucci 33, 28100 Novara,

The potential of macrocyclic diterpenoids to afford natural product-like
polycyclic compounds was demonstrated by the conversion of two lathyrane
Euphorbia factors into a series of densely functionalized diterpenoids of
unnatural skeletal type. Apparently, Nature is far from having fully exploited
the built-in reactivity of these compounds to generate chemical diversity.

PMID: 11405667 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28: J Theor Biol  2001 Jun 7;210(3):385-8 

Aposematic (warning) coloration associated with thorns in higher plants.

Lev-Yadun S.

Department of Biology, University of Haifa-Oranim, Tivon, 36006, Israel.

Aposematic coloration, a well-known phenomenon in animals, has been given little
attention in plants. Here I discuss two types of conspicuousness of thorns which
are typical of many plant species: (1) colorful thorns, and (2) white spots, or
white and colorful stripes, associated with thorns in leaves and stems. Both
types of aposematic coloration predominate the spine system of taxa rich with
spiny species-Cacti, the genera Agave, Aloe and Euphorbia. The phenomena have
been recorded here in over a thousand species originating in several continents
of both the Old and New World. I propose that this is a case of vegetal
aposematic coloration analogous to such coloration of poisonous animals, and
which communicates between plants and herbivores. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

PMID: 11397139 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29: Acta Trop  2001 May 25;79(2):165-70 

The control of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata by the
plant Molluscicide Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (syn milli Des. Moul): a
longitudinal field study in an endemic area in Brazil.

Schall VT, Vasconcellos MC, Rocha RS, Souza CP, Mendes NM.

Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, RJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Under laboratory conditions, latex from Euphorbia splendens has shown promise as
a plant molluscicide for control of Biomphalaria species, intermediate hosts for
Schistosoma mansoni. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its efficiency
under field conditions. Application of filtered latex at 12 ppm to one stream in
an endemic rural area in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in September 1995, did
result in a reduction in snail density as compared to an untreated stream but
the snail population recovered quickly. However, two applications with a
two-week interval of unfiltered E. splendens latex at 5 ppm in November 1996 in
the same stream resulted in complete disappearance of B. glabrata and snails did
not reappear until the 14th month after the applications. In the control stream,
without treatment, the snails were found during all months. Laboratory studies
confirmed that unfiltered latex is a more potent molluscicide than filtered
latex. Considering the advantages of the latex such as its low toxicity to other
aquatic animals and its photobiodegradability, as well as the simple method of
application, this natural product is promising as an effective molluscicide.

PMID: 11369309 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30: Biomed Sci Instrum  2001;37:391-7 

Utilizing image processing techniques to compute herbivory.

Olson TE, Barlow VM.

Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of
Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071-3295, USA.

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L. sensu lato) is a perennial weed species common
to the north-central United States and southern Canada. The plant is a foreign
species toxic to cattle. Spurge infestation can reduce cattle carrying capacity
by 50 to 75 percent [1]. University of Wyoming Entomology doctoral candidate
Vonny Barlow is conducting research in the area of biological control of leafy
spurge via the Aphthona nigriscutis Foudras flea beetle. He is addressing the
question of variability within leafy spurge and its potential impact on flea
beetle herbivory. One component of Barlow's research consists of measuring the
herbivory of leafy spurge plant specimens after introducing adult beetles.
Herbivory is the degree of consumption of the plant's leaves and was measured in
two different manners. First, Barlow assigned each consumed plant specimen a
visual rank from 1 to 5. Second, image processing techniques were applied to
"before" and "after" images of each plant specimen in an attempt to more
accurately quantify herbivory. Standardized techniques were used to acquire
images before and after beetles were allowed to feed on plants for a period of
12 days. Matlab was used as the image processing tool. The image processing
algorithm allowed the user to crop the portion of the "before" image containing
only plant foliage. Then Matlab cropped the "after" image with the same
dimensions, converted the images from RGB to grayscale. The grayscale image was
converted to binary based on a user defined threshold value. Finally, herbivory
was computed based on the number of black pixels in the "before" and "after"
images. The image processing results were mixed. Although, this image processing
technique depends on user input and non-ideal images, the data is useful to
Barlow's research and offers insight into better imaging systems and processing

PMID: 11347423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31: Zhong Yao Cai  2001 Jan;24(1):28-9 

[Identification of a confused species of Euphorbia hirta L. E. indica Lam.]

[Article in Chinese]

Chu X, Cao L, Yuan C.

Jiangxi College of TCM, Nanchang, 330006.

The article reported the morphological and histological identification for
Euporbia hirta L. and its confused species E. indica Lam.. It provided evidences
for identifying Euphorbia hirta L..

PMID: 11341025 [PubMed - in process]

32: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  2001 Jan;96(1):123-5 

The molluscicidal activity of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii on
Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae), a snail associated with habitats of
Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae).

Giovanelli A, da Silva CL, Medeiros L, de Vasconcellos MC.

Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900,

The use of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii was considered as an
effective control method for Biomphalaria glabrata in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro.
However, the appearance and expansion of the snail Melanoides tuberculata since
August 1997, with the concomitant reduction of the population of B. glabrata
suggest that competitive exclusion might be taking place. Depending on the
susceptibility of the thiarid to the E. splendens toxin, the natural control
that is occurring could be interrupted by the employment of the latex if the
planorbid were less susceptible to the toxin. The aim of this study is to
investigate the molluscicidal activity of the latex on M. tuberculata. We used
420 M. tuberculata, from Sumidouro. Fourteen different latex concentrations were
tested using World Health Organization general methodology. Probit analysis was
used for LD90 and LD50 determination. The LD50 was 3.57 mg/l and LD90 was 6.22
mg/l. At the highest concentration (10 mg/l) there was no survival. No
significant differences among replicas (chi2 = 8.31; gl = 13; p > 0.05) were
found. The LD90 dose for M. tuberculata was 13.8 times greater than that for B.
glabrata, so that the molluscicide in the presence of the thiarid may have a
synergic effect on reduction of Biomphalaria populations.

PMID: 11285483 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33: J Asian Nat Prod Res  2000;2(4):257-61 

An isopimarane diterpene from Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata.

Xu ZH, Qin GW, Xu RS.

Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

From the ethanolic extract of the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata four
compounds were isolated. They are 24-methylenecycloartanone, tirucallol,
procesterol and a new isopimarane diterpene, namely yuexiandajisu C. The
structure of yuexiandajisu C was elucidated by spectral analysis. The bioassay
in vitro showed yuexiandajisu C exhibited immunomodulatory activity.

PMID: 11249607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34: J S Afr Vet Assoc  2000 Dec;71(4):240-3 

The use of herbal preparations for tick control in western Ethiopia.

Regassa A.

National Animal Health Research Centre, Sebeta, Ethiopia.

Information on the traditional tick control methods used in Keffa, Illubabor and
Wellega Provinces in western Ethiopia was obtained from 86 veterinary clinics
and 865 peasant farmers through a questionnaire survey. Latexes of Euphorbia
obovalifolia and Ficus brachypoda, juice of crushed leaves of Phytolaca
dodecandra and Vernonia amygdalina, fruit juice of Solanum incanum, crushed
seeds of Lepidium sativum mixed with fresh cattle faeces, juice of crushed
leaves and bark of Calpurnea aurea and commercially available spice of Capsicum
spp. mixed with butter, were used by peasant farmers to control ticks.
Preliminary in vitro efficacy tests of these plant preparations were performed
on engorged female Boophilus decoloratus. Preparations of Capsicum spp., E.
obovalifolia, S. incanum and F. brachypoda were found to have 30-100% killing
effects. Subsequently, in vivo treatment trials of these preparations were
conducted using indigenous Bos indicus cattle naturally infested with ticks.
Results indicate that treatments at the rate of once per day for 5 consecutive
days with the latexes of E. obovalifolia and F. brachypoda can reduce tick
burdens by up to 70% on cattle.

PMID: 11212935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35: Inflamm Res  2000 Dec;49(12):732-6 

Neutrophil migration and aggregation induced by euphorbin, a lectin from the
latex of Euphorbia milii, var. milii.

Dias-Baruffi M, Sakamoto M, Rossetto S, Vozari-Hampe MM, Roque-Barreira MC.

Department of Clinical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao
Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To study the neutrophil migration and aggregation induced
by euphorbin, a D-galactose binding lectin from Euphorbia milii var. milli
latex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Euphorbin-induced neutrophil migration was
evaluated in vivo and in vitro, in the absence or presence of soluble
D-galactose. Neutrophil aggregation induced in vitro by euphorbin was determined
by light microscopy. RESULTS: The neutrophil migration inducing activity of
euphorbin was dose-dependent and inhibited by soluble D-galactose. Neutrophil
aggregation was rapidly reversed when provoked by 0.1 mg/ml euphorbin. In higher
concentrations, euphorbin caused persistent and more extensive neutrophil
aggregation. CONCLUSIONS: Euphorbin induced neutrophil migration through its
sugar recognition property. The transitory neutrophil aggregation, induced by a
euphorbin quantity similar to that able to cause maximal chemotactic response,
is characteristic of homotypic neutrophil adhesion, whereas persistent
aggregation, provoked by higher euphorbin quantities, corresponds to cell
agglutination by a multivalent lectin.

PMID: 11211926 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol  2001 Jan;127(1):40-7 

Dietary cancer risk from conditional cancerogens (tumor promoters) in produce of
livestock fed on species of spurge (Euphorbiaceae). V. Skin irriitant and
tumor-promoting diterpene ester toxins of the tigliane and ingenane type in the
herbs Euphorbia nubica and Euphorbia helioscopia contaminating fodder of

Zayed SM, Farghaly M, Soliman SM, Gotta H, Sorg B, Hecker E.

Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Irritant diterpene ester toxins were isolated from Euphorbia nubica and E.
helioscopia, which are contaminants of the green fodder of livestock in Egypt.
Fractionations of methanol extracts of aerial parts of both plants were
monitored by the irritation unit on the mouse ear. Plant extracts were subjected
to multiplicative distribution methods, yielding irritant hydrophilic fractions
that were further purified by column chromatography. Final purification of the
materials was achieved by TLC (silica gel) followed by HPLC, or by TLC alone. In
this way, from E. nubica, five Euphorbia factors (Nu1-Nu5) were isolated and
characterized as short-chain polyfunctional diterpene esters of tigliane-type
parent alcohols. The two weak irritants Nul and Nu3 were triesters of
4-deoxy(4alpha)phorbol. Nu2 was shown to be a triester of the stereoisomeric
tigliane-type parent alcohol 4-deoxyphorbol. Weak irritant Nu4 probably is a
positional isomer of Nu2. Nu5 was characterized as a short-chain triester of
4,20-dideoxy-5xi-hydroxyphorbol. From E. helioscopia, six short- to medium-chain
polyfunctional diterpene esters of the ingenane type, generally containing
unsaturated acids were obtained, i.e., four irritant esters of ingenol
(Euphorbia factors H1, H2, H5, and H6) and two esters of 20-deoxyingenol
(non-irritant Euphorbia substance HS4, and irritant Euphorbia factor H8). All
irritant Euphorbia factors of the tigliane and ingenane diterpene ester type
described in this investigation are considered to be more or less active tumor
promoters, i.e., conditional (non-genotoxic) cancerogens. The Euphorbia factors
assayed exhibited moderate (H1) to low (H8) relative tumor-promoting potency in
comparison to the ingenane prototype DTE tumor promoter 3-TI.

PMID: 11206270 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol  2001 Jan;127(1):34-9 

Dietary cancer risk from conditional cancerogens (tumor promoters) in produce of
livestock fed on species of spurge (Euphorbiaceae). IV. Toxicologic and
pathophysiologic observations in lactating goats and their suckling kids fed on
the irritant herbs Euphorbia nubica and Euphorbia helioscopia: an etiologic
model for investigations on the putative risk of cancer by consumption of food

Nawito M, Ahmed YF, Shalaby SI, Nada A, Zayed SM, Hecker E.

Department of Animal Reproduction, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo,

The feeding of lactating goats on usual green fodder, contaminated with
Euphorbia helioscopia or E. nubica, results in poisoning of the dams as well as
their suckling kids. General signs of toxicity were emaciation, depression,
shedding of body hair, arching of back, and possible death. Post-mortem changes
of dams and dead suckling kids included congestion and hemorrhage in cardiac
muscle, lung, liver, and kidneys. Blood analyses of goats exposed to these
contaminants showed an increased level of serum alanine amino transferase
compared to control samples, indicating cellular destruction in the liver. The
latter was confirmed by histopathological changes in the organ which include
severe congestion, necrosis, and degenerative changes. The goats also suffered
from deterioration of renal function as indicated by increased blood urea
nitrogen and creatinine levels. In histopathologic inspections of kidney, severe
congestion, hemorrhage in the cortex and medulla, as well as necrosis of
epithelial cells of kidney tubules were noticed. Considerable degenerative
changes were also observed in heart and lung. The pathophysiological appearances
indicate that by feeding on the Euphorbia species mentioned above, the goats are
poisoned in a way similar to the case of E. peplus reported previously. Such
intoxication most likely is due to irritant and hyperplasiogenic diterpene ester
(DTE) toxins, usually present in the aerial parts of Euphorbia species and well
known as tumor promoters in mouse skin. After ingestion of the toxic plant parts
by the goats, the DTE toxins might be metabolized and thereby partially
detoxified. Yet, at least in part, they may show up in the milk of the goats, as
indicated by severe poisoning of their suckling kids. As discussed previously in
lactating goats fed on fodder contaminated with E. peplus, tumor promoters of
the DTE type may enter the human food chain via this source of milk. Such milk
may be considered a valuable etiologic model for the investigation of economic,
ecologic, and public health problems raised by human diet polluted with tumor
promoters, i.e., conditional (non-genotoxic) cancerogens.

PMID: 11206269 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38: Biochem Soc Trans  2000 Dec;28(6):855-7 

Characterization of a Euphorbia lagascae epoxide hydrolase gene that is induced
early during germination.

Edqvist J, Farbos I.

Department of Plant Biology, SLU, Box 7080, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

In Euphorbia lagascae the major fatty acid in triacylglycerol is the epoxidated
fatty acid vernolic acid (cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid). The enzymic
reactions occurring during the catabolism of epoxidated fatty acids during
germination are not known, but it seems likely that the degradation requires the
activity of an epoxide hydrolase. Epoxide hydrolases are a group of functionally
related enzymes that catalyse the cofactor-independent hydrolysis of epoxides to
their corresponding vicinal diols by the addition of a water molecule. Here we
report the cloning and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase gene from E.
lagascae. The structure of the gene is unusual since it lacks introns. A
detailed investigation of the transcription pattern of the epoxide hydrolase
gene shows that the gene is induced during germination. We have used in situ
hybridization to identify in which tissues the gene is expressed during
germination. We speculate that this epoxide hydrolase enzyme is involved in the
catabolism of epoxidated fatty acids during germination of E. lagascae seeds.

PMID: 11171232 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39: Biochem Soc Trans  2000 Dec;28(6):703-5 

The involvement of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases in
triacylglycerol production.

Banas A, Dahlqvist A, Stahl U, Lenman M, Stymne S.

Scandinavian Biotechnology Research AB, SE-268 31 Svalov, Sweden.

We have characterized three CoA-independent types of enzyme, phospholipases,
phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (PDATs) and
cholinephosphotransferases, responsible for the removal of unusual fatty acids
from phosphatidylcholine (PC) in microsomal preparations from developing oil
seeds. The metabolism of sn-2-[(14)C]acyl-PC was monitored in microsomal
preparations from various oilseeds having either medium-chain, acetylenic, epoxy
or hydroxy fatty acids as their major fatty acids in the oil. The results
indicate that PDAT plays a major role in removing ricinoleic acid and vernolic
acid from phospholipids in Ricinus communis and Crepis palaestina seeds,
respectively. However, vernolic, crepenynic and capric acids are primarily
removed from phospholipids by phospholipases in Euphorbia lagascae, Crepis rubra
and elm seeds, respectively. Further, we show that significant PDAT activity is
also present in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana.

PMID: 11171177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40: Acta Trop  2001 Jan 15;78(1):23-9 

Laboratory evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of some Saudi Arabian
euphorbiales against Biomphalaria pfeifferi.

Al-Zanbagi NA, Barrett J, Banaja A.

Department of Biology, King Abdul-Aziz University Saudi Arabia, P.O. Box 42626
21515, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the molluscicidal properties of
three Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales. The results showed that the methanol extract
of Euphorbia schimperiana has a high molluscicidal potency. The activity remains
stable over a wide range of temperature and pH values, in the presence of
organic and inorganic substrates and after exposure of the solutions to
ultraviolet radiation.

PMID: 11164747 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41: Fitoterapia  2000 Dec;71(6):655-62 

Anti-inflammatory activity of the hydrosoluble fraction of Euphorbia royleana

Bani S, Kaul A, Jaggi BS, Suri KA, Suri OP, Sharma OP.

Department of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory, Canal Road, Jammu,

The hydrosoluble fraction of Euphorbia royleana latex (AER), administered by
gavage at doses of 50-200 mg/kg, showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and
anti-arthritic effects in different acute and chronic test models in rats and
mice. It reduced the exudate volume and the migration of leukocytes and showed a
poor inhibitory effect on the granuloma formation induced by cotton pellets,
while it had a low ulcerogenic score. The oral LD(50) was more than 1500 mg/kg
in both rats and mice.

PMID: 11077172 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42: Parasitol Res  2000 Oct;86(10):843-50 

Ultrastructural analysis of Phytomonas species from Euphorbia pinea reveals
trans-cytoplasmic filaments 10 nm in diameter.

Page AM, Lagnado JR.

Biomedical Imaging Unit, General Hospital, Southampton, UK.

Phytomonas sp. derived from Euphorbia pinea are digenetic plant trypanosomes
that are transmitted by the squashbug Stenocephalus agilis and exist exclusively
as promastigotes. The stable sub-pellicular microtubular array, the flagellar
axoneme and the paraflagellar rod represent the major cytoskeletal components
common to all trypanosomes. The work described in this paper examines in detail
the ultrastructural morphology of the organism and highlights a number of novel
structural features, and in particular, the presence of some detergent-resistant
proteins which take the form of bundles of trans-cytoplasmic filaments of ca. 10
nm in diameter, seen in cells from both log- and stationary-phase cultures. The
ultrastructural morphology and immunological cross-reactivity of these filaments
are described, and their relationship to filamentous bundles previously reported
in stationary-phase cultures of Crithidia fasciculata and to intermediate
filaments of animal cells is discussed.

PMID: 11068818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf  2000 Jul;46(3):342-50 

Toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and niclosamide to snails and nontarget
aquatic species.

Oliveira-Filho EC, Paumgartten FJ.

Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, The National School of Public Health,
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21045-900, Brazil.

The toxicity of Euphorbia milii molluscicidal latex and niclosamide (NCL) to
target snails (Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila) and nontarget
aquatic organisms is evaluated. Planorbidae snails were killed by very low
concentrations of lyophilized latex (48-h LC(50), mg/L: B. glabrata, 0.12; B.
tenagophila, 0.09; Helisoma duryi, 0.10). Latex was less toxic (48-h LC(50) or
EC(50), mg/L) to oligochaeta (Tubifex tubifex, 0.31), planktonic crustacea
(Daphnia similis, 0.38; C. dubia, 1.07; Artemia sp., 0.93), and fishes (Danio
rerio, 0.96; Poecilia reticulata, 1. 39), and considerably less toxic to
Ampullariidae snails (Pomacea sp. , 10.55) and frog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana,
7.50). Latex (up to 100 mg/L) was not toxic to bacteria (P. putida and V.
fischeri), algae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris), and
mosquito larvae (Anopheles albitarsis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes fluviatilis). NCL
was very toxic (48-h LC(50) or EC(50), mg/L) to Planorbidae snails (B. glabrata,
0.15, B. tenagophila, 0.13; H. duryi, 0.10), T. tubifex (0.11), crustacea (D.
similis, 0.19; Ceriodaphnia dubia, 0.47; Artemia sp. 0.18), fishes (D. rerio,
0.25; P. reticulata, 0.29), R. catesbeiana (0.16), and Pomacea sp. (0.76). NCL
was toxic to bacteria, algae (96-h IC(50), mg/L: S. capricornutum, 0.34; C.
vulgaris, 1.23) and slightly toxic to mosquito larvae. In conclusion, E. milii
latex, as compared with the reference molluscicide niclosamide, presents a
higher degree of selectivity toward snails which are intermediate hosts of
Schistosoma trematodes. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

PMID: 10903832 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44: J Econ Entomol  2000 Jun;93(3):813-9 

Imidacloprid applications by subirrigation for control of silverleaf whitefly
(Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on poinsettia.

van Iersel MW, Oetting RD, Hall DB.

Department of Horticulture, Georgia Station, University of Georgia, Griffin
30223-1797, USA.

The objective of this study was to determine whether silverleaf whiteflies,
Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima
Willdenow ex Klotsch, can be controlled with imidacloprid applied by
subirrigation. Different amounts of imidacloprid uptake by the growing medium
were obtained by not watering the subirrigated plants for 0, 1, 2, or 4 d before
the imidacloprid application. These treatments resulted in absorption of 12-175
ml of imidacloprid solution by the growing medium. These treatments were
compared with untreated control plants and plants that were treated with a
standard drench application (100 ml) to the top of the growing medium. All
imidacloprid treatments resulted in a significant decrease in both the survival
of adult whiteflies and number of immature whiteflies on the plants.
Subirrigation treatments resulted in better control of adult and immature
whiteflies than drench application. Withholding water for 2 or 4 d before the
imidacloprid application by subirrigation improved control of immature
whiteflies. This indicates that the application of imidacloprid to poinsettia by
subirrigation is a practical and efficient method to control silverleaf

PMID: 10902335 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45: J Econ Entomol  2000 Jun;93(3):623-9 

An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for
whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse poinsettias.

Stevens TJ 3rd, Kilmer RL, Glenn SJ.

Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville
32611-0240, USA.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs of biologically
controlling infestations of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows &
Perring, in New England greenhouse operations on poinsettia, Euphorbia
pulcherrima Wild, ex Koltz, using the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa Gahan
(Nile Delta strain). Partial budget analysis was used to compare costs for
conventional verses biological control regimens. Four alternative whitefly
control budgets are developed; two conventional chemical-based control budgets
formulated with and without the use of imidacloprid, and two biological control
budgets which demonstrate the impact of possibly greater pest monitoring efforts
necessary to implement this type strategy successfully. The analysis shows that
biological whitefly control costs were > 300% greater than conventional
chemical-based control strategy costs. Most of this increase is caused by the
higher costs of Encarsia formosa as the material control input. If monitoring
costs are held constant across different strategies, labor costs actually
decline for biological control. This is because of a significant reduction in
the number of control applications made and the relatively lower cost of
applying E. formosa. If more extensive monitoring efforts are required to
implement biological control successfully, labor costs increase by 56% over the
conventional pre-imidacloprid regimen. Based on these results, the authors
conclude that cheaper and more reliable means of producing E. formosa must be
developed before this strategy will become economically viable for commercial
poinsettia greenhouse production.

PMID: 10902307 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46: Virology  2000 Jun 5;271(2):289-97 

Sequence analysis and genome organisation of poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV)
reveal closer relationship to marafiviruses than to tymoviruses.

Bradel BG, Preil W, Jeske H.

Biologisches Institut, Abt. fur Molekularbiologie und Virologie der Pflanzen,
Universitat Stuttgart, Germany.

Sequence comparison and genome organisation of poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV), a
putative member of the tymoviruses, revealed a closer relationship to
marafiviruses. The complete nucleotide sequence of PnMV was determined. The
6099-nt RNA genome encodes a putative 221-kDa polyprotein that lacks a stop
codon between the replicase and the coat protein genes, as in most tymovirus
RNAs. The genomic RNA has a poly(A) tail at its 3'-terminus in contrast to the
tRNA-like structure found in the RNA of most tymoviruses, and no homology was
observed to the conserved noncoding region of the tymoviral 3'-termini. The
tymobox of PnMV, a 16-nt region of the subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) promoter shared by
most tymoviruses, differs in 3 nt from the RNA sequence of tymoviruses but is
identical to the sequence of marafiviruses. At least three sgRNAs were found in
PnMV-infected Euphorbia pulcherrima and in isolated PnMV particles; one that is
650 nt long encodes the 21.4-kDa coat protein, and the others are about 3.5 and
1.7 kb and contain the 5'- and the 3'-terminal parts of genomic RNA,
respectively. Like tymoviruses, PnMV particles sediment as top and bottom
components. The particles of the top component contain the sgRNA (650 nt)
encoding the coat protein, and those of bottom component contain both genomic
and sgRNAs. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

PMID: 10860883 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47: Planta Med  2000 Apr;66(3):291-4 

Diterpenoids from Euphorbia peplus.

Hohmann J, Evanics F, Berta L, Bartok T.

From a pro-inflammatory active extract of Euphorbia peplus, two new diterpene
polyesters based on the pepluane and jatrophane skeletons were isolated,
together with four known ingenane and jatrophane diterpenes. The structures were
determined on the basis of extensive NMR studies. Ingenol 3-angelate, which was
obtained for the first time from this plant, is an irritant toxin with high

Publication Types:

PMID: 10821064 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48: Phytochemistry  2000 Apr;53(8):947-50 

Constituents and bioactivity of the tubers of Euphorbia sessiliflora.

Sutthivaiyakit S, Thapsut M, Prachayasittikul V.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok,

The diterpene ent-12-hydroxy-12[R]-abieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12-olide was
isolated from the tubers of Euphorbia sessiliflora Roxb., together with four
known ent-abietadienolides, four known cycloartane triterpenes and ellagic
acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Two of these metabolates displayed moderate
antibacterial activities.

PMID: 10820809 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Microstructure of Purified Rubber Particles.

Wood DF, Cornish K.

Purified rubber particles from Hevea brasiliensis (Brazilian rubber tree),
Parthenium argentatum (guayule), Ficus elastica (Indian rubber tree), and
Euphorbia lactiflua were examined and compared using conventional scanning
electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission SEM, cryo-SEM, and transmission
electron microscopy (TEM). Rubber particles of all four species were spherical;
they varied in size and had a uniform homogeneous material, the rubber core,
surrounded by a contiguous monolayer (half-unit) membrane. Frozen-hydrated
and/or untreated particles from H. brasiliensis and P. argentatum deformed and
fused readily, whereas those from F. elastica and E. lactiflua retained their
spherical shapes. These results indicate that the surface components of the H.
brasiliensis and P. argentatum particles are more fluid than those of F.
elastica or E. lactiflua. When fixed in aldehyde, F. elastica particles retained
their spherical exterior shapes but had hollow centers, whereas H. brasiliensis
and P. argentatum particles completely collapsed. In aldehyde-osmium
tetroxide-fixed material, the rubber core of F. elastica was poorly preserved in
some particles in which only a small amount of the rubber core remained adhering
to the monolayer membrane, leaving a hollow center. Euphorbia lactiflua
particles were well preserved in terms of retaining the rubber core; however,
the membrane was not as easily discernible as it was in the other three species.
Both H. brasiliensis and P. argentatum were well preserved following fixation;
their cores remained filled with rubber, and their monolayer membranes were
defined. The addition of potassium permanganate to the fixation-staining regime
resulted in higher-contrast micrographs and more well defined monolayer

PMID: 10817979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


A Phylogenetic Study of Tribe Euphorbieae (Euphorbiaceae).

Park KR, Elisens WJ.

A phylogenetic investigation of a monophyletic lineage of spurge plants, tribe
Euphorbieae, was conducted to elucidate evolutionary relationships, to clarify
biogeographic patterns, and to reexamine the previous classification of
Euphorbieae. Cladistic analyses of the 52 morphological characters of 61 species
resulted in 2922 equally most parsimonious trees of 193 steps with a consistency
index of 0.34. The strict consensus tree indicates genus Anthostema of subtribe
Anthosteminae as a likely sister group to all other members of tribe
Euphorbieae. The morphological data support a monophyletic origin of subtribe
Euphorbiinae, but the subtribes Anthosteminae and Neoquillauminiinae did not
form monophyletic groups. Although the previous taxonomic treatments within
tribe Euphorbieae have supported the generic status of Pedilanthus, Monadenium,
Synadenium, Chamaesyce, and Elaeophorbia, the results of this analysis do not
support generic placement of them based on cladistic principles. Recognition of
these groups as genera results in Euphorbia becoming a paraphyletic group. One
solution to this problem in Euphorbieae is to divide the largest genus Euphorbia
into several monophyletic genera and to keep the generic ranks for previously
recognized genera. The distribution of basal endemic genera in Euphorbieae
showed African and east Gondwanan affinities and strongly indicated that the
ancestor of Euphorbieae originated prior to the breakup of Gondwanaland from an
old group in Euphorbiaceae. However, some recent African taxa of Euphorbia
should be interpreted by transoceanic dispersal from the New World ancestors.

PMID: 10817978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

51: Phytomedicine  2000 Mar;7(1):31-8 

Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal
traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo.

Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M, Cimanga K, De Bruyne
T, Apers S, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Three major extracts from some traditional preparations, based on medicinal
plants, used as antidiarrhoeal agents were investigated for their putative
antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities in vitro. Results indicated that both
biological activities are concentrated in the polyphenolic fraction, and not in
the saponin or alkaloid containing fractions. The most active polyphenolic
extracts were those from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Alchornea
cordifolia, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Nauclea latifolia, Psidium guajava, Tithonia
diversifolia, stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis, Mangifera indica,
Maprounea africana and Psidium guajava, inhibiting Entamoeba histolytica growth
with MAC < 10 micrograms/ml. The same extracts, at a concentration of 80
micrograms/ml in an organ bath, also exhibited more than 70% inhibition of
acetylcholine and/or KCl solution-induced contractions on isolated guinea-pig

PMID: 10782488 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

52: J Ethnopharmacol  2000 May;70(2):119-25 

Molluscicidal activity of some Saudi Arabian euphorbiales against the snail
Biomphalaria pfeifferi.

Al-Zanbagi NA, Banaja AA, Barrett J.

Department of Biology, King Abdul-Aziz University Saudi Arabia, Jeddah.

The comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal
schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from Saudi
Arabian Euphorbiales has been determined. Methanol and chloroform extracts of
the plants tested (Jatropha glauca, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia
schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with
LD(50) values in the range 10-100 ppm.

PMID: 10771201 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53: Phytochemistry  2000 Mar;53(6):639-44 

Cucumisin-like protease from the latex of Euphorbia supina.

Arima K, Uchikoba T, Yonezawa H, Shimada M, Kaneda M.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University, Japan.

A protease has been purified from the latex of Euphorbia supina Rafin by two
steps of chromatography. The Mr was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 80 kDa. Its
activity was inhibited strongly by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, but not by EDTA,
pepstatin, or cysteine protease inhibitors, indicating that the enzyme is a
serine protease. The specificity of the protease is broad, but the preferential
cleavage sites were C-terminal sites of hydrophobic amino acid residues. The
N-terminal sequence of the first fifteen residues was determined and six of the
residues match those in cucumisin [EC], a protease from the sarcocarp
of melon fruit (Cucumis melo L. var. Prince). The results indicate that the E.
supina protease is a cucumisin-like serine protease.

PMID: 10746875 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

54: Fitoterapia  2000 Apr;71(2):134-42 

Polycyclic diterpenoids from Euphorbia characias.

Appendino G, Belloro E, Tron GC, Jakupovic J, Ballero M.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Via Giuria 9, I-10125 Torino,

In addition to widespread flavonoids, a collection of Euphorbia characias from
Sardinia afforded 13 oxygenated diterpenoids of the atisane, abietane, pimarane,
and kaurane type. Four of these compounds (1, 3a, 7a,b) are new. The
accumulation of substantial amounts of biologically active diterpenoids of
limited availability, like ent-atisanes endowed with anti-HIV activity and
ent-abietanolides active on the central nervous system, makes E. characias an
interesting source of lead compounds for biomedical research.

PMID: 10727809 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55: J Pharm Pharmacol  2000 Jan;52(1):119-24 

Inhibitory effect of euphol, a triterpene alcohol from the roots of Euphorbia
kansui, on tumour promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage
carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

Yasukawa K, Akihisa T, Yoshida ZY, Takido M.

College of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, Japan.

The anti-inflammatory activity of euphol, twelve other triterpene alcohols and
sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside, isolated from the dichloromethane extract of
the roots of Euphorbia kansui, has been evaluated in mice with inflammation
induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). TPA (1.7 nmol; 1.0
microg/ear) was dissolved in acetone and 10 microL delivered to the inner and
outer surfaces of the right ear of ICR mice. A triterpene alcohol, sterol
glucoside or vehicle (20 microL; chloroform-methanol 1:1), was applied topically
approximately 30 min before each TPA treatment. The ear thickness was measured
before treatment and then oedema was measured 6 h after TPA treatment. For the
two-stage carcinogenesis experiment, initiation was accomplished by
administration of a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene
(DMBA; 195 nmol; 50 microg/mouse) to the shaved backs of mice. Promotion was
with 1.7 nmol (1.0 microg) TPA, applied twice weekly to the same shaved area,
begun one week after the initiation. Euphol (2.0 micromol; 853 microg), or its
vehicle (acetone-dimethylsulphoxide, 9:1; 100 microL), was applied topically 30
min before each TPA treatment. The number and diameter of skin tumours were
measured every other week for 20 weeks. All the compounds were found to possess
marked inhibitory activity and their 50% inhibitory dose for TPA-induced
inflammation was 0.2-1.0 mg/ear. Topical application of euphol (2.0 micromol;
853 microg/mouse) markedly suppressed the tumour-promoting effect of TPA (1.7
nmol; 1.0 microg/mouse) in mouse skin initiated with DMBA.

PMID: 10716613 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56: J Nat Prod  2000 Feb;63(2):267-9 

Nonpolar components of the latex of Euphorbia peplus.

Giner JL, Berkowitz JD, Andersson T.

Department of Chemistry, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

The less polar fractions of the latex of Euphorbia peplus were found to contain
obtusifoliol, cycloartenol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, lanosterol, and
24-methylenelanosterol in the free and esterified triterpene alcohol fractions;
9-cis-tricosene as the major component of the hydrocarbon fraction; and a new
acyclic triterpene alcohol named peplusol (1). The structure of 1 was determined
as the R-isomer of (all-E)-2-(5,9-dimethyl-1-methylene-4,8-decadienyl)-5,9,
13-trimethyl-4,8,12-tetradecatrien-1-ol by spectral and chemical methods.

PMID: 10691725 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57: J Nat Prod  2000 Jan;63(1):99-103 

Bioactive steroids from the whole herb of Euphorbia chamaesyce.

Tanaka R, Kasubuchi K, Kita S, Tokuda H, Nishino H, Matsunaga S.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094, Japan.

Three new ergostane-type steroids, 3beta-hydroxy-4alpha,
14alpha-dimethyl-5alpha-ergosta-8,24(28)-dien-11 -one (1); 3beta,
11alpha-dihydroxy-4alpha,14alpha-dimethyl-5alpha -ergosta-8, 24(28)-dien-7-one
(2); and 3beta,7alpha-dihydroxy-4alpha,
14alpha-dimethyl-5alpha-ergosta-8,24(28)-dien-11 -one (3), were isolated,
together with two known triterpenoids, wrightial and
lup-20(30)-ene-3beta,29-diol from the whole herb of Euphorbia chamaesyce.
Compound 3 showed a potent inhibitory effect on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen
activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate

PMID: 10650087 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58: Am J Bot  2000 Jan;87(1):48-55 

Pollinator-mediated interactions between a pathogenic fungus, Uromyces pisi
(Pucciniaceae), and its host plant,Euphorbia cyparissias (Euphorbiaceae).

Pfunder M, Roy BA.

Geobotanical Institute, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich,
Zurichbergstrasse 38,8044 Zurich, Switzerland.

The plant Euphorbia cyparissias is commonly infected by rust fungi of the
species complex Uromyces pisi. When infected, E. cyparissias is unable to
flower, but instead is induced by the fungus to form pseudoflowers.
Pseudoflowers are rosettes of yellow leaves upon which the fungus presents its
gametes in a sweet-smelling fungal nectar. We hypothesized that the fungi, as
they are heterothallic, are dependent on insect visitation to cross-fertilize
their mating types. We confirmed that insects are required with an insect
exclusion experiment. We further hypothesized that pseudoflowers of U. pisi
interact with uninfected true host flowers through insects during their period
of co-"flowering" in early spring. We conducted artificial array experiments in
the field to test whether the two species share insects and whether they
influenced each other's insect visitation. Insects moved between true flowers
and pseudoflowers, but true flowers received more visits over all. Pseudoflowers
and true flowers did not influence each other's visitation rates in mixtures.
However, shorter visits were observed on pseudoflowers in mixtures than
monocultures, suggesting that true flowers might be competitors for
pseudoflowers. Further experiments are needed to determine whether the
similarity of pseudoflowers to true flowers is adaptive.

PMID: 10636829 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

59: Arch Ophthalmol  2000 Jan;118(1):13-6 

Comment in:
 Arch Ophthalmol. 2000 Aug;118(8):1141.

The spectrum of ocular inflammation caused by euphorbia plant sap.

Eke T, Al-Husainy S, Raynor MK.

Department of Ophthalmology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, United Kingdom.

OBJECTIVE: To report the spectrum of clinical findings in patients with ocular
inflammation caused by plant sap from Euphorbia species. DESIGN: Clinical case
series. SETTING: Ophthalmology emergency referrals in the United Kingdom.
PATIENTS: We examined 7 patients, all of whom gave a history of recent ocular
exposure to the sap of Euphorbia species. INTERVENTIONS: All patients were
treated with antibiotic drops or ointment (chloramphenicol). Cycloplegic and
steroid drops were also used for some patients. Patients were observed until all
signs and symptoms had resolved. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms, visual acuity,
and clinical signs of inflammation. All patients provided a specimen of the
plant for formal identification. RESULTS: Initial symptoms were generally
burning or stinging pain with blurred vision. In most cases, visual acuity was
reduced between 1 and 2 Snellen lines. In 1 patient with age-related
maculopathy, acuity dropped from 20/80 to hand motions before recovering.
Clinical findings varied from a mild epithelial keratoconjunctivitis to a severe
keratitis with stromal edema, epithelial sloughing, and anterior uveitis. All
signs and symptoms had resolved by 1 to 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: These cases
illustrate the range of severity of Euphorbia sap keratouveitis. The condition
seems to be self-limiting when managed supportively. People who work with
Euphorbia plant species should wear eye protection. Clinicians managing
keratopathy caused by Euphorbia species should be aware of the danger of
sight-threatening infection and uveitis, particularly during the first few days.

PMID: 10636407 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60: J Ethnopharmacol  1999 Dec 15;68(1-3):193-203 

Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants
used in Kinshasa, Congo.

Tona L, Ngimbi NP, Tsakala M, Mesia K, Cimanga K, Apers S, De Bruyne T, Pieters
L, Totte J, Vlietinck AJ.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine
African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the
treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to
evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species,
14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves,
Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola
stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant
produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test
concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M.
morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice
infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day.

PMID: 10624878 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61: Planta  1999 Nov;210(1):85-96 

Rubber particles from four different species, examined by transmission electron
microscopy and electron-paramagnetic-resonance spin labeling, are found to
consist of a homogeneous rubber core enclosed by a contiguous, monolayer

Cornish K, Wood DF, Windle JJ.

USDA, ARS, Western Regional Research Center, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA
94710, USA.

The physical characteristics of rubber particles from the four rubber
(cis-1,4-polyisoprene) producing species Euphorbia lactiflua Phil., Ficus
elastica Roxb., Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg., and Parthenium argentatum Gray,
were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and
electron-paramagnetic-resonance (EPR) spin labeling spectroscopy. Transmission
electron microscopy showed the rubber particles to be composed of a spherical,
homogeneous, core of rubber enclosed by a contiguous, electron-dense,
single-track surface layer. The biochemical composition of the surface layer and
its single-track TEM suggested that a monolayer biomembrane was the surface
structure most compatible with the hydrophobic rubber core. The EPR spectra for
a series of positional isomers of doxyl stearic acid, used to label the surface
layer of the rubber particles, exhibited flexibility gradients and evidence for
lipid-protein interactions for all four rubber particle types that is consistent
with a biomembrane-like surface. The EPR spectra confirmed that the surface
biomembrane is a monolayer. Thus, rubber particles appear similar to oil bodies
in their basic architecture. The EPR spectra also provided information on
protein location and degree of biomembrane penetration that correlated with the
known properties of the rubber-particle-bound proteins. The monolayer
biomembrane serves as an interface between the hydrophobic rubber interior and
the aqueous cytosol and prevents aggregation of the particles. An unexpected
observation for the probes in pure polyisoprene was evidence of an intrinsic
flexibility gradient associated with the stearic acid molecule itself.

PMID: 10592036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

62: J Nat Prod  1999 Oct;62(10):1399-404 

Diterpenoids from euphorbia pithyusa subsp. cupanii

Appendino G, Belloro E, Tron GC, Jakupovic J, Ballero M.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Universita di Torino, Via
Giuria 9, 10125 Torino, Italy, Dipartimento di Scienze Botaniche, Universita di
Cagliari, Viale San Ignazio 13, 09123 Cagliari, Italy, and Analyticon AG,

The aerial parts of Euphorbia pithyusa subsp. cupanii collected in Sardinia
afforded eleven novel diterpenoids belonging to the lathyrane (1a), premyrsinane
(4a-g), and tigliane (5a-c) types. Compounds 4a-g and 5a are esters of two new
parent alcohols, named premyrsinol and 4,12,20-trideoxyphorbol, respectively.
Structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Puzzling
differences between the NMR data of lathyrol (1c) and its esters were
rationalized in terms of flipping of the exomethylene around the mean plane of
the macrocycle.

PMID: 10543901 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

63: Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd  1999 Sep;215(3):203-4 

[Dermatitis and conjunctivitis after contact with Euphorbia myrsinites (wolf's
milk extract)--a case report]

[Article in German]

Eberle MM, Erb C, Flammer J, Meyer P.

Universitats-Augenklinik Basel.

BACKGROUND: Fresh sap of euphorbiaceae leads to a toxic burn of the skin and the
eyes. Since years the sap of euphorbiaceae has been used in the treatment of
different kinds of verrucas. PATIENTS: After contact with the sap of Euphorbia
myrsinites three children developed a toxic dermatitis. In addition, the
youngest girl showed a conjunctivitis and an occlusion of the right eye.
Phorbolesters are considered to be responsible for the toxicity of the
euphorbiaceae. All three children have resulted in a restitutio ad integrum.
CONCLUSION: This case report is demonstrating the danger of toxic burn of this
kind of plant.

PMID: 10528288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

64: J Environ Sci Health B  1999 Mar;34(2):289-303 

The influence of environmental factors on the molluscicidal activity of
Euphorbia milii latex.

Oliveira-Filho EC, De-Carvalho RR, Paumgartten FJ.

Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, National School for Public Health,
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of biotic (snail
size and presence of food during the test) and abiotic factors (temperature,
water hardness and concentration of organic materials) on the molluscicidal
activity of Euphorbia milii latex. Bioassays were conducted with B. glabrata (10
snails per concentration) and snail lethality was evaluated after 24 hr and 48
hr of exposure to lyophilized latex solutions. Neither the degree of water
hardness, nor the presence of food during the test affected latex-induced snail
mortality. The snail size had a minor influence on E. milii-induced snail
lethality. Newly-hatched (shell diameter < or = 1 mm) as well as young (3-8 mm)
snails were slightly less susceptible than older (10-25 mm) mollusks. On the
other hand, the molluscicidal effect of E. milii latex was modified by
environmental factors such as temperature (i.e., LC50 and LC90 values were
halved for every 10 degrees C rise in temperature) and concentration of organic
materials in the water (i.e. the higher the concentration of organic matter, the
higher the LC50 value). The efficacy  of E. milii latex as a molluscicide can be
modified by factors such as water temperature and concentration of organic
materials, and to a lesser extent by snail size.

PMID: 10507917 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65: Biochem Biophys Res Commun  1999 Aug 2;261(2):499-503 

Piceatannol, a stilbene phytochemical, inhibits mitochondrial F0F1-ATPase
activity by targeting the F1 complex.

Zheng J, Ramirez VD.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign, 524 Burrill Hall, Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA.

Piceatannol is a stilbene phytochemical from the seeds of Euphorbia lagascae,
previously identified as an antileukemic principle. Piceatannol is considered an
inhibitor of several tyrosine kinases. We recently reported that resveratrol,
another stilbene phytoalexin from grape seeds, was an inhibitor of ATP synthase.
Here, we demonstrated that piceatannol potently inhibited the rat brain
mitochondrial F0F1-ATPase activity in both solubilized and submitochondrial
preparations (IC50 of 8-9 microM), while having relatively small effect on the
Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity of porcine cerebral cortex (no effect up to 7
microM). Piceatannol inhibited the ATPase activity of the purified rat liver F1
with IC50 of about 4 microM, while resveratrol was slightly less active (IC50 of
about 14 microM). Our results indicate that piceatannol and resveratrol inhibit
the F-type ATPase by targeting the F1 sector, which is located to the inner
membrane of mitochondria and plasma membrane of normal endothelial cells and
several cancer cell lines. This mechanism could potentially contribute to the
multiple effects of these chemopreventive phytochemicals. Copyright 1999
Academic Press.

PMID: 10425214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

66: J Nat Prod  1999 Jul;62(7):1016-8 

New diterpenoids from euphorbia teheranica

Ahmad VU, Jassbi AR.

HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270,

Two novel pentacyclic diterpenoid esters of the cyclomyrsinane type (1, 2), and
one tetracyclic diterpenoid ester of the myrsinane type (3) were isolated from
the aerial parts of the plant Euphorbia teheranica. The structures of the novel
compounds were determined by spectral data interpretation.

PMID: 10425130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

67: Phytochemistry  1999 Jul;51(5):673-7 

Jatrophane diterpenoids from Euphorbia peplus.

Hohmann J, Vasas A, Gunther G, Dombi G, Blazso G, Falkay G, Mathe I, Jerkovich

Department of Pharmacognosy, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Medical University, Szeged,

From the pro-inflammatory active extract of Euphorbia peplus, a new diterpene
polyester (1) based on the jatrophane skeleton was isolated together with the
known compounds 2-5. The irritant activities of some jatrophane diterpenes (2, 3
and 6-9) were also investigated: only compound 2 was found to exert a weak
pro-inflammatory activity on mouse ear.

PMID: 10392470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68: Yakugaku Zasshi  1999 May;119(5):319-39 

[Terpenoids and steroids from several euphorbiaceae and pinaceae plants]

[Article in Japanese]

Tanaka R, Matsunaga S.

Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Japan.

During the course of a search for biologically active constituents from
unexamined plant sources, several biogenetically interesting new di- and
tri-terpenes and steroids were isolated from several weeds and shrubs of
Euphorbiaceae and the bark, leaves and cones of several Pinaceae trees which had
been treated as wastes in the forestry industry. Euphorbia supina contained
3,4-seco-5 alpha- and 5 beta-adian-4(23)-ene-3,5-diols and related oxides,
oxygenated fern-8-en-3 beta-ols named supinenolones A-E and unusually migrated
oxyfernanes having (9S)- and (9R)-7(8-->9)abeo-9-D:C-friedo-B':A'-neogammacerane
skeletons named spirosupinane and neospirosupinane, while E. chamaesyce
contained 3,4-seco-oleana-4(23), 18-dien-3-oic acid, 3,4-seco-8 beta
H-ferna-4(23),9(11)-dien-3-oic acid and two oxygenated obtusifoliols. The bark
of Phyllanthus flexuosus (Euphorbiaceae) contained 11
beta-hydroxy-D:A-friedo-olean-1-en-3-one, lup-20(29)-ene-3 beta, 15 alpha-diol,
olean-12-ene-3 beta,15 alpha-diol and olean-12-ene-3 beta,15 alpha,24-triol
together with trichadenic acid B for which we revised the structure to 3
beta-hydroxy-D:A-friedo-oleanan-27-oic acid. Two 26-nor-D:A-friedo-olean-14-enes
were isolated from P. watsonii. Regarding Pinaceae trees, an unusually migrated
abieslactone [(3R, 7S, 9R,
23R)-7-hydroxy-3-methoxy-8-oxo-7(8-->9)abeo-lanost-24-eno-26,23-lactone], named
spiroveitchionolide, was isolated from the bark of Abies species, besides nine
abieslactone analogues. Two pairs of unusually migrated serratanes, piceanonols
A and B and jezananals A and B having novel skeletal systems of 14(13-->12)
abeo- and 16(15-->14) abeo-serratanes named piceanane and jezanane,
respectively, were also isolated from the stem bark of Picea species, besides
three 14 beta,15 beta-epoxyserratanes and two 13 alpha,14 alpha-epoxyserratanes.
The leaves of Larix kaempferi contained two deformed abietanes named karamatsuic
acid (9,10-seco-9,10 alpha-epoxyabieta-8,11,13-trien-18-oic acid) and
larikaempferic acid [9 alpha,13 alpha-epoxy-8-oxo-9(8-->7)abeo-7
beta-abietan-18-oic acid], as well as the cones to contain 8 alpha,12
alpha-epidioxy-15-hydroxyabiet-13-en-18-oic acid, three diepoxy-abietan-18-oic
acids and two new dehydroabietic acid analogues. Several of the above compounds
exhibited inhibitory effects against tumor-promoting and DNA topoisomerase II

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10375995 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

69: Phytochemistry  1999 May;51(2):289-95 

Tumor promoting diterpenes from Euphorbia leuconeura L.

Vogg G, Mattes E, Rothenburger J, Hertkorn N, Achatz S, Sandermann H Jr.

Institut fur Biochemische Pflanzenpathologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum fur Umwelt
und Gesundheit GmbH, Oberschleissheim, Germany.

Diterpene esters of the phorbol and ingenol types are known to be highly active
tumor promoting agents that typically occur in members of the Euphorbiaceae. In
the present work, Euphorbia leuconeura, a rare indoor plant, is analyzed for its
tumor promoting potential. Latex as well as total leaf extracts exhibited
Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV) inducing activity comparable to
12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-O-acetate, a well known tumor promoter. The
activity of individual fractions correlated with their ingenol ester content.
Three ingenol esters with EBV inducing activity could be isolated and
identified. They belong to the milliamine type of diterpene esters that contain
aromatic peptidyl groups. Two of them (milliamines L and M) are already known
from E. milii. The third compound is identified as an isomer of milliamine F
with a novel 3,20-diester arrangement. The data show a close relationship
between E. leuconeura and the more popular indoor plant E. milii whose latex is
also used as a powerful molluscicide.

PMID: 10365450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70: J Ethnopharmacol  1999 Apr;65(1):63-9 

Euphorbia hirta leaf extracts increase urine output and electrolytes in rats.

Johnson PB, Abdurahman EM, Tiam EA, Abdu-Aguye I, Hussaini IM.

Department of Pharmacology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Euphorbia hirta is locally used in Africa and Australia to treat numerous
diseases, including hypertension and edema. The diuretic effect of the E. hirta
leaf extracts were assessed in rats using acetazolamide and furosemide as
standard diuretic drugs. The water and ethanol extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg) of
the plant produced time-dependent increase in urine output. Electrolyte
excretion was also significantly affected by the plant extracts. The water
extract increased the urine excretion of Na+, K+ and HCO3-. In contrast, the
ethanol extract increased the excretion of HCO3- decreased the loss of K+ and
had little effect on renal removal of Na+. Acetazolamide, like the water
extract, increased urine output and enhanced the excretion of Na+, K+ and HCO3-.
The high-ceiling diuretic, furosemide, increased the renal excretion of Na+ and
Cl-; but had no effect on K+ and HCO3- loss. This study suggests that the active
component(s) in the water extract of E. hirta leaf had similar diuretic spectrum
to that of acetazolamide. These results validate the traditional use of E. hirta
as a diuretic agent by the Swahilis and Sukumas.

PMID: 10350369 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

71: Phytomedicine  1999 Mar;6(1):59-66 

Biological screening of traditional preparations from some medicinal plants used
as antidiarrhoeal in Kinshasa, Congo.

Tona L, Kambu K, Mesia K, Cimanga K, Apers S, De Bruyne T, Pieters L, Totte J,
Vlietinck AJ.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Kinshasa, Dem. Rep. of Congo.

Forty six aqueous extracts from 38 medicinal plant species belonging to
different families were selected on the basis of their traditional medicinal use
as antidiarrhoeic agents. They were submitted in a broad biological screening
including antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activities. The results
of the testing have indicated that 37 extracts (80.43%), 33 (71.74%) and 32
(69.54%) exhibited some level of antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic
activity respectively. Only 8 plant extracts (17.39%) would act as
antidiarrhoeic agents by a triple pronounced antibacterial, antiamoebic and
antispasmodic action. They include aqueous extracts from Euphorbia hirta whole
plant, leaves of Psidium guajava and Tithonia diversifolia, root bark of
Alchornea cordifolia, Heinsia pulchella, Paropsia brazzeana, Rauwolfia obscura
and Voacanga africana.

PMID: 10228613 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

72: Phytother Res  1999 Feb;13(1):31-6 

Inhibitory effects of Sudanese plant extracts on HIV-1 replication and HIV-1

Hussein G, Miyashiro H, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kawahata T, Otake T, Kakiuchi N,
Shimotohno K.

Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku (Traditional Sino-Japanese Medicines), Toyama
Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

Forty-eight methanol and aqueous extracts from Sudanese plants were screened for
their inhibitory activity on viral replication. Nineteen extracts showed
inhibitory effects on HIV-induced cytopathic effects (CPE) on MT-4 cells. The
extracts were further screened against HIV-1 protease (PR) using an HPLC assay
method. Of the tested extracts, the methanol extracts of Acacia nilotica (bark
and pods), Euphorbia granulata (leaves), Maytenus senegalensis (stem-bark) and
aqueous extracts of A. nilotica (pods) and M. senegalensis (stem-bark) showed
considerable inhibitory effects against HIV-1 PR. Inhibitory principles were
isolated from M. senegalensis and their activities were also discussed.

PMID: 10189947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

73: Planta Med  1998 Dec;64(8):754-6 

Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the compounds from Euphorbia kansui.

Zheng WF, Cui Z, Zhu Q.

Eleven compounds including four triterpenes, one sterol, and six diterpenes from
E kansui had been assayed for their cytotoxicity and activiral activity. The
relations between structures and bioactivities have also been noted.

Publication Types:

PMID: 9933994 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

74: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1998;93 Suppl 1:235-7 

Effects of Euphorbia milii latex on Schistosoma mansoni eggs, miracidia and

De-Carvalho RR, Maldonado Junior A, Oliveira Filho EC, Ribeiro AC, Paumgartten
FJ, Rey L.

Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica, Fiocruz,
Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

PMID: 9921358 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

75: Mycoses  1998 Dec;41(11-12):529-33 

Euphorbia hirta leaves and Musa sapientum fruits in culture media for fungi.

Emele FE, Agbonlahor DE, Ahanotu C.

Medical Microbiology Department, Usman Danfodio University Teaching Hospital,
Sokoto, Nigeria.

Two plant products, Euphorbia hirta leaves and fruits of Musa sapientum, were
evaluated as principal ingredients for selective cultivation of fungi. Sapientum
glucose agar supported the growth of both dermatophytic, yeast-like, and
saprophytic fungi; growth on this medium compared favourably with growth on
Sabouraud glucose agar, a standard mycological medium. Sporulation and pigment
formation were stronger on sapientum glucose agar than on Sabouraud glucose
agar, although fungal growth on the latter was more luxuriant. Addition of
Euphorbia extract to mycological media remarkably enhanced fungal growth on the
media, and concomitantly suppressed bacterial growth to a similar extent as did
antibiotics. The results of this study suggest that Euphorbia sapientum glucose
agar can safely be recommended as a cheap and efficient medium for routine
isolation of fungi in both clinical and general mycological studies.

PMID: 9919898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

76: J Nat Prod  1999 Jan;62(1):176-8 

A novel lathyrane diterpenoid from the roots of euphorbia lathyris

Hohmann J, Evanics F, Vasas A, Dombi G, Jerkovich G, Mathe I I.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Medical University, P.O. Box
121, H-6701 Szeged, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi
Medical University, 4 Somogyi u., H-6720 Szeged, Hungary, and Spectr.

A new lathyrane diterpene (1) has been isolated and characterized from a CH2Cl2
extract of the roots of Euphorbia lathyris. Detailed spectral analysis revealed
that the structure of 1, including relative stereochemistry, is that of a
diester of a hitherto unknown, polyfunctional diterpene parent alcohol.

PMID: 9917314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

77: J Nat Prod  1999 Jan;62(1):110-3 

Isoterracinolides A and B, novel bishomoditerpene lactones from euphorbia

Marco JA, Sanz-Cervera JF, Yuste A, Jakupovic J.

Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot,
Valencia, Spain, and Institut fur Organische Chemie, Technische Universitat
Berlin, D-10623 Berlin, Germany.

An extract of Euphorbia terracina L. has yielded six acylated polyhydroxy
terpenoid lactones (1-6), which all display the C22 17-ethyljatrophane carbon
framework. Four of these (1-4) are delta lactones belonging to the previously
described terracinolide type, and two of them (2, 3) are new. Two further new
compounds have been named isoterracinolides A (5) and B (6) and exhibit an
eight-membered lactone ring. Another isolated new compound is the
jolkinolide-type, ent-abietane gamma lactone (7).

PMID: 9917294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

78: J Nat Prod  1999 Jan;62(1):107-9 

Isolation and structure revision of pepluane diterpenoids from euphorbia peplus

Hohmann J, G nther G, Vasas A, Kalman A, Argay G.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Medical University, P.O. Box
121, H-6701 Szeged, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi
Medical University, 4 Somogyi u., H-6720 Szeged, Hungary, and Instit.

A new pepluane diterpene polyester (2) was isolated from a CH2Cl2 extract of the
whole, undried plant of Euphorbia peplus, together with the known compound 1.
The structures were established by high-field spectroscopic methods, including
2D NMR techniques, and by X-ray crystallography, and the stereostructure of the
first member of the pepluane diterpenoids (1) was revised.

PMID: 9917293 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

79: J Nat Prod  1999 Jan;62(1):76-9 

An expeditious procedure for the isolation of ingenol from the seeds of
euphorbia lathyris

Appendino G, Tron GC, Cravotto G, Palmisano G, Jakupovic J.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, via Giuria 9, 10125 Torino,
Italy, and Institut fur Organische Chemie, Technische Universitat Berlin,
Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany.

A short and practical process for the isolation of ingenol (1a) from an
agricultural commodity (the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris) is described.
Macrocyclic diterpene esters are obtained as byproducts, and the esterification
pattern of the Euphorbia factors L2 (3), L3 (4a), and L8 (4b) was established by
2D NMR measurements. Full spectroscopic data for these compounds are reported.

PMID: 9917286 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

80: Bioorg Med Chem Lett  1998 Oct 20;8(20):2829-32 

In vitro inhibitory effects of DNA topoisomerase II by fernane-type
triterpenoids isolated from a Euphorbia genus.

Wada S, Tanaka R, Iida A, Matsunaga S.

Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Japan.

Several kinds of naturally occurring fernane-type triterpenoids isolated from a
Euphorbia genus were tested on the inhibitory effects of DNA Topoisomerases I
(Topo I) and II (Topo II) activities. A-ring cleaved 3,4-seco-8 beta
H-ferna-4(23),9(11)-dien-3-oic acid and its 3-hydroxyl derivative were found to
be selective inhibitors of Topo II activity without the stabilization of a
DNA/Topo II cleavable complex.

PMID: 9873631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

81: Cutis  1998 Nov;62(5):221-2 

Botanical briefs: leafy spurge--Euphorbia esula l.

McGovern TW, Barkley TM.

Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven,
Connecticut 06519, USA.

PMID: 9836052 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

82: Med Res Rev  1998 Nov;18(6):375-82 

Recent advances on bioactive natural products from Chinese medicinal plants.

Qin GW, Xu RS.

Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, People's
Republic of China.

China has accumulated a rich body of empirical knowledge of the use of medicinal
plants for the treatment of various diseases throughout its long history.
Chemical studies on Chinese medicinal plants provide a valuable material base
for the discovery and development of new drugs of natural origin. In this
article recent chemical work on various Chinese medicinal plants is reviewed,
including Mussaenda pubescens (Rubiaceae), Isatis indigotica (Cruciferae),
Euphorbia fischeriana, and E. ebracteolata (Euphorbiaceae), and Stemona species
(Stemonaceae). The structural diversity of the medicinal chemical constituents
of the above plants is discussed.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 9828038 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

83: Dakar Med  1997;42(2):169-71 

[Application of phytotherapy in odontology: the case of Euphorbia balsamifera.
Endodontic clinical trial]

[Article in French]

Yam AA, Gaye F, Dieme FA, Bassene E, Ba I.

Institut d'Odontologie-Stomatologie, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar.

Phytotherapy is a medicinal and ancestral practice in Africa. It deals with all
the fields of human pathology. We wanted to ascertain the efficacy of some
plants used in odontology as Euphorbia balsamifera traditionally used as
antalgic treatment of acute dental pulpitis. The latex of the plant was caught
and treated as to get enough stable paste. We used that paste in the same
conditions we use arsenical nerve caustics, a pulpal devitalizer widely used in
dental offices. The study carried out on 37 teeth has shown that latex of
Euphorbia balsamifera is an effective pulpal devitalizing in contact with the
pulp. Its lifetime action was comparable to that of the pulpal nerve caustics.
The active principles are not known, however the product seems attractive as a
pulpal devitalizing agent.

PMID: 9827145 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

84: Scand J Urol Nephrol  1998 Sep;32(5):331-4 

Intravesical resiniferatoxin for the treatment of detrusor hyperreflexia
refractory to capsaicin in patients with chronic spinal cord diseases.

Lazzeri M, Spinelli M, Beneforti P, Zanollo A, Turini D.

Department of Urology, University of Ferrara, Italy.

OBJECTIVE: Resiniferatoxin (RTX), a substance isolated from some species of
Euphorbia, a cactus-like plant, shows pharmacological effects similar to those
of capsaicin. We have studied the possibility of treating detrusor hyperreflexia
refractory to intravesical capsaicin in patients with chronic spinal cord
injuries, thereby providing insight into the mechanism of action of RTX on
sensory neurons and its possible future pharmacological and clinical use.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: RTX saline solution (30 ml at a concentration of 10(-5)
M) was instilled into the bladder of 7 patients with detrusor hyperreflexia,
refractory to intravesical capsaicin therapy, and left in place for 30 min.
Effects on bladder function were monitored during the treatment and at follow-up
(15 days and 4 weeks later). RESULTS: Fifteen days after RTX, the mean
cystomanometric capacity increased significantly from 190 ml +/- 20 ml to 407.14
ml +/- 121.06 (p < 0.01), and it remained high four weeks later (421.66 +/-
74.40 p < 0.01). After 15 days, four patients had a pharmacologically induced
detrusor areflexia. They emptied their bladders by clean intermittent
catheterization. After four weeks, only two patients still had a
pharmacologically induced detrusor areflexia. Clinically, three patients
remained dry, and the other three reported a significant improvement in their
incontinence and symptoms (frequency, urgency and nocturia). CONCLUSIONS: By
interfering with sensory unmyelinated fibers, intravesical RTX seems to be a
promising treatment option for selected cases of detrusor hyperreflexia. The
ideal dosage and treatment interval have not yet been established, and further
studies are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.

PMID: 9825395 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

85: Contact Dermatitis  1998 Oct;39(4):166-70 

Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners
and greenhouse workers.

Paulsen E, Skov PS, Andersen KE.

Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark.

Short-lived occupational skin symptoms of irritant or urticarial nature were
commonly reported among 253 attendants in a clinical study on occupational
dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers. Aimed prick or
scratch-patch testing for immediate skin and mucosal symptoms was performed in
105 persons with plants as is. 35 persons (33%) had at least 1 positive reaction
and a family history of, or personal, atopy was significantly more prevalent
among these compared to attendants with negative reactions. Positive histamine
release tests made immunologic etiology probable in Schlumbergera cacti,
Stephanotis floribunda, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Gerbera reactions. Other new
species implicated in immediate-type reactions included Ficus pumila, Gardenia
jasminoides, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Campanula, Columnea, Epipremnum aureum,
Pelargonium and Primula vulgaris. Because of the high prevalence of short-lived
skin symptoms and because contact urticaria may present itself as a dermatitis,
it is recommended that one supplement patch tests with tests for immediate

PMID: 9817221 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

86: J Enzyme Inhib  1998 Aug;13(5):311-25 

Inhibitors of plant copper amine oxidases.

Padiglia A, Medda R, Pedersen JZ, Lorrai A, Pec P, Frebort I, Floris G.

Department of Biochemistry and Human Physiology, University of Cagliari, Italy.

In this review, inhibitors of plant copper amine oxidases from Lens esculenta
seedlings, Pisum sativum seedlings, and Euphorbia characias latex are described.
Reversible competitive inhibitors and non-competitive inhibitors, irreversible
active-site directed inhibitors and mechanism-based inactivators are reviewed in
regard to their mechanisms of action.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 9793836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

87: J Nat Prod  1998 Oct;61(10):1198-201 

Diterpene polyesters from euphorbia seguieriana

Oksuz S, Gurek F, Qiu SX, Cordell GA.

University of Istanbul, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Chemistry, 34452
Istanbul, Turkey, TUBITAK, Marmara Research Center, Department of Chemistry,
P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Turkey, Program for Collaborative Research in the

An Me2CO extract of Euphorbia seguieriana (Euphorbiaceae) afforded seven new
diterpene polyesters (1-7). Five of them (1-5), having a new parent alcohol that
was named 17-hydroxymyrsinol, were structurally related to myrsinol. The other
two compounds (6, 7) were new derivatives of the known parent alcohols
cyclomyrsinol and lathyrane. The structure elucidations of the new compounds by
highfield spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, are

PMID: 9784151 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

88: Yao Xue Xue Bao  1996;31(7):524-9 

[Studies on chemical constituents of roots of Euphorbia pekinensis]

[Article in Chinese]

Kong LY, Min ZD.

Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University,

Nine compounds were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis Rupr., a
traditional Chinese medicine. By combination of chemical methods and spectral
analyses, the structures of the compounds were identified as lanosterol (I),
octadecanyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzeneacrylate (II), beta-sitosterol (III),
7-hydroxycoumarin (IV), 2, 2'-dimethoxy-3, 3'-dihydroxy-5, 5'-oxygen-6,
6'-biphenylformic anhydride (V), d-pinoresinol (VI), quercetin (VII), 3,
4-dimethoxybenzoic acid (VIII) and 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (IX). II and V are
new compounds which have not been reported in the literature. The other
compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. VI is a lignan which
was first isolated from the plants of genus of Euphorbia.

PMID: 9772694 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

89: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung  1998;45(2):195-207 

Saprophytic and cycloheximide resistant fungi isolated from golden hamster.

Bagy MM, el-Shanawany AA, Abdel-Mallek AY.

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Egypt.

Healthy hair samples from golden hamsters were examined for the presence of
dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes using baiting technique and direct
inoculation. Thirty-four species and 2 varieties attributed to 17 genera were
recovered. Paecilomyces variotii (isolated from 84.4% of the examined hair) and
Aspergillus niger (81.3%) were the more frequent isolates on Sabouraud's
dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide. Our results have clearly demonstrated
that the hair of hamster was free from true dermatophytes. Using the dilution
plate method many fungal species were isolated from cage material (7 genera and
10 species + 1 variety); from faeces (10 genera and 17 species); from standard
chow (3 genera and 6 species) of hamster. P. variotii which was the most
frequent fungus in the preceding 3 substrates was completely absent in the
presence of cycloheximide in SDA. The present study has demonstrated for the
first time the isolation of Trichophyton rubrum from hamster faeces. Also,
several saprophytic and cycloheximide resistant fungi were isolated. In the air
of hamster cage Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium chrysogenum,
Alternaria alternata and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis were the most dominant
species on SDA with or without cycloheximide. Using the agar diffusion method,
Aloe sap, onion oil, garlic bulb extract and aqueous leaf extracts of Andropogon
citratus, Euphorbia sp. and Ruta graveolens were tested for their antifungal
activity on 10 fungal species. It was observed that onion oil exhibited a high
inhibitory effect against most of the tested fungi.

PMID: 9768288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

90: Plant Mol Biol  1998 Nov 1;38(4):531-8 

Cloning and characterization of cold-regulated glycine-rich RNA-binding protein
genes from leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) and comparison to heterologous
genomic clones.

Horvath DP, Olson PA.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, State University
Station, Fargo, ND 58105-5674, USA.

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is a perennial weed which is capable of
acclimating to sub-freezing temperatures. We have used the differential display
technique to identify and clone a cDNA for a cold-regulated gene (cor20) which
hybridizes to mRNAs that accumulate specifically during the cold acclamation
process. The cor20 cDNA was used to isolate two different genomic clones. Both
clones were similar but not identical to each other and the cDNA. Sequence
analysis of the genomic clones indicated that they share considerable homology
to a group of glycine-rich RNA-binding protein genes. Comparison of the promoter
region from the three clones (Ccr1 from Arabidopsis. BnGRP10 from Brassica
napus, and GRRBP2 from Euphorbia esula) have identified at least two conserved
motifs. CAGC is most likely involved in cold regulation and AACCCYAGTTA, is
conserved but has no known function. RNAs which hybridize to cor20 reach maximal
expression in less than 2 days after exposure of the plant to temperatures of 5
degrees C, and remains at high levels in the plant for at least 30 days so long
as the plant is left in the cold. These RNAs drop to control levels within 24 h
when the plant is returned to normal growing temperatures. Transcripts which
hybridize to cor20 do not accumulate under conditions of drought or heat stress.
These transcripts are induced in response to low temperatures in roots, stems
and leaves, but are expressed constitutively in tissue culture at control

PMID: 9747799 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

91: Acta Pharm Hung  1998 May;68(3):175-82 

[Macrocyclic diterpene polyesters of the jatrophane type from Euphorbia esula]

[Article in Hungarian]

Hohmann J, Vasas A, Gunther G, Mathe I, Evanics F, Dombi G, Jerkovich G.

SZOTE Gyogynoveny- es Drogismereti Intezet, Szeged.

Three new jatrophane diterpenes, esulatin A, B and C (1-3) were isolated and
characterized from the whole, undried plant of Euphorbia esula. By means of
spectral analysis, the structures were established as penta- and heptaesters of
hitherto unknown, polyfunctional diterpene parent alcohols. Esulatin A (1) and C
(3) are the diterpenoids with the highest degree of esterification identified to
date from the family Euphorbiaceae.

PMID: 9703704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

92: Plant Physiol  1998 Aug;117(4):1363-71 

Characterization of Euphorbia characias latex amine oxidase.

Padiglia A, Medda R, Lorrai A, Murgia B, Pedersen JZ, Finazzi Agro A, Floris G.

Department of Biochemistry and Human Physiology, University of Cagliari,
Cagliari, Italy.

A copper-containing amine oxidase from the latex of Euphorbia characias was
purified to homogeneity and the copper-free enzyme obtained by a ligand-exchange
procedure. The interactions of highly purified apo- and holoenzyme with several
substrates, carbonyl reagents, and copper ligands were investigated by optical
spectroscopy under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The extinction
coefficients at 278 and 490 nm were determined as 3.78 x 10(5) M-1 cm-1 and 6000
M-1 cm-1, respectively. Active-site titration of highly purified enzyme with
substrates and carbonyl reagents showed the presence of one cofactor at each
enzyme subunit. In anaerobiosis the native enzyme oxidized one equivalent
substrate and released one equivalent aldehyde per enzyme subunit. The apoenzyme
gave exactly the same 1:1:1 stoichiometry in anaerobiosis and in aerobiosis.
These findings demonstrate unequivocally that copper-free amine oxidase can
oxidize substrates with a single half-catalytic cycle. The DNA-derived protein
sequence shows a characteristic hexapeptide present in most 6-hydroxydopa
quinone-containing amine oxidases. This hexapeptide contains the tyrosinyl
residue that can be modified into the cofactor 6-hydroxydopa quinone.

PMID: 9701592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

93: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol  1998;124(6):301-6 

Dietary cancer risk from conditional cancerogens in produce of livestock fed on
species of spurge (Euphorbiaceae). III. Milk of lactating goats fed on the skin
irritant herb Euphorbia peplus is polluted by tumor promoters of the ingenane
diterpene ester type.

Zayed SM, Farghaly M, Taha H, Gminski R, Hecker E.

Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Special procedures were developed to investigate poisonous milk of lactating
goats fed experimentally on aerial parts of the herb Euphorbia peplus L. In
extracts of the milk, weakly irritant in the mouse-ear assay, three diterpene
ester toxins were detected by techniques of high-performance liquid
chromatography. They are of the ingenane structural type: Euphorbia factor Pel
(ingenol 20-acetate 3-angelate), Euphorbia factor Pe2 (20-deoxyingenol
3-angelate) and Euphorbia factor Pe4 (20-deoxyingenol-6alpha,7alpha-epoxide
3-angelate). From goats milk collected 15 days after cessation of the
experimental feeding period, extracts were completely free of diterpene ester
toxins. The toxins polluting the milk are identical to diterpene ester entities
occurring in the aerial parts of E. peplus. Of these, Euphorbia factors Pel and
Pe2 are known as promoters of tumors of mouse skin. Apart from the toxic
Euphorbia factors, the non-toxic parent alcohol ingenol was also detected in the
milk. It is absent in the plant, and may have been generated metabolically from
a certain portion of the toxic diterpene esters picked up by the goats from
their fodder. The results presented here provide, for the first time, data for a
novel interpretation of the locally high incidence of esophageal cancer observed
in certain areas in the Caspian littoral of Iran, associated with a greater
consumption of goat's (and sheep's) milk.

PMID: 9692836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

94: J Ethnopharmacol  1998 Jun;61(2):101-10 

Study of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants used as antidiabetics.

Alarcon-Aguilara FJ, Roman-Ramos R, Perez-Gutierrez S, Aguilar-Contreras A,
Contreras-Weber CC, Flores-Saenz JL.

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana
Iztapalapa, Mexico, DF, Mexico.

The purpose of this research was to study the anti-hyperglycemic effect of 28
medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Each plant was
processed in the traditional way and intragastrically administered to
temporarily hyperglycemic rabbits. The results showed that eight out of the 28
studied plants significantly decrease the hyperglycemic peak and/or the area
under the glucose tolerance curve. These plants were: Guazuma ulmifolia,
Tournefortia hirsutissima, Lepechinia caulescens, Rhizophora mangle, Musa
sapientum, Trigonella foenum graceum, Turnera diffusa, and Euphorbia prostrata.
The results suggest the validity of their clinical use in diabetes mellitus
control, after their toxicological investigation.

PMID: 9683340 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

95: J Nat Prod  1998 Jun 26;61(6):749-56 

Macrocyclic diterpenoids from Euphorbia semiperfoliata.

Appendino G, Jakupovic S, Tron GC, Jakupovic J, Milon V, Ballero M.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, via Giuria 9, 10125 Torino,

In addition to known compounds, the aerial parts of E. semiperfoliata afforded
an abietanolide (3), 13 jatrophane polyesters (4-9, 12, 14-19), two
4-deoxyphorbol diesters (23, 24), and a pair of epimeric diterpenes (21, 22)
with a novel carbon skeleton, which was named euphoperfoliane. Structures were
determined by spectroscopic analysis, and the main conformational features of
jatropha-6(17),11-dienes are discussed in detail. The obtained isolation yield
of several jatrophanes was unprecedented within the spurges (Euphorbia spp.),
making E. semiperfoliata a unique source of macrocyclic diterpenoids.

PMID: 9644058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

96: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol  1998;124(3-4):179-85 

Dietary cancer risk from conditional cancerogens in produce of livestock fed on
species of spurge (Euphorbiaceae). II. Pathophysiological investigations in
lactating goats fed on the skin irritant herb Euphorbia peplus and in their
milk-raised kids.

Nawito M, Ahmed YF, Zayed SM, Hecker E.

Department of Animal Reproduction, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo,

Lactating goats were fed on aerial parts of the herb Euphorbia peplus L. admixed
with their usual green fodder. During the experimental feeding period they
showed symptoms of general poisoning. In necropsy the main toxic effects were
seen in the heart, lung and liver. Histopathological examinations revealed that
the primary toxic effects originated from degenerative changes in parenchymal
and endothelial cells. Adverse symptoms in the liver and kidney were also
reflected in an alteration of the levels of certain serum enzymes and of blood
urea nitrogen. The milk of the goats fed on E. peplus, consumed by their young
kids, caused poisoning and even death, with signs similar to those observed in
the adult dams. These observations support the hypothesis that the poisoning
observed in both milk-raised kids and mother goats is caused by diterpene ester
type toxins present in the aerial parts of the herb contaminating the dams
fodder. Generally, such skin irritant and hyperplasiogenic toxins are known to
be highly active tumour promoters of skin and other organ, e.g. in mice.
Lactating goats--as an important source of milk around the world--in a setting
similar to that described, may provide a valid experimental etiological model
for investigation of food polluted by tumour-promoting diterpene ester toxins.

PMID: 9619744 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

97: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol  1998;124(3-4):131-40 

Erratum in:
 J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1998;124(6):351

Dietary cancer risk conditional cancerogens in produce of livestock fed on
species of spurge (Euphorbiaceae). I. Skin irritant and tumor-promoting
ingenane-type diterpene esters in E. peplus, one of several herbaceous Euphorbia
species contaminating fodder of livestock.

Zayed SM, Farghaly M, Taha H, Gotta H, Hecker E.

Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

The hypothesis was proposed that there is a risk of dietary cancer from
conditional cancerogens in produce of livestock polluted with irritants of the
diterpene ester type, picked up by feeding on species of Euphorbiaceae (spurge).
To challenge this, several herbaceous plants of the genus Euphorbia, widespread
as weeds and contaminants of livestock fodder, were identified botanically and
extracts of their aerial parts were tested for irritancy on the mouse ear. As
compared to a standard probe of croton oil, the extracts of E. peplus, E. nubica
and E. helioscopia displayed irritancy. The most active extract (that from E.
peplus) was investigated by a fractionation procedure monitored by the mouse ear
assay, and five molecularly uniform irritant Euphorbia factors Pe1-Pe5 were
identified as diterpene ester-type toxins. Together these factors comprise at
least 11 ppm in the aerial parts. They were characterized individually to carry
the diterpene parent alcohols ingenol, 20-deoxyingenol, and 20-deoxyingenol-6
alpha, 7alpha-epoxide. The irritancy of the aerial plant parts was shown to be
caused mainly by the Euphorbia factors Pe1 and Pe2 together. Upon chronic
administration of these irritants and hyperplasiogens as principal cancerogenic
risk factors in the mouse skin initiation/promotion bioassay, Pe1 and Pe2 were
established as tumor promoters. These findings together support the initial
hypothesis and suggest the need for further investigations to determine whether
there is a consequent risk of dietary cancer.

PMID: 9619738 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

98: J Ethnopharmacol  1998 Mar;60(2):163-72 

Screening of Australian medicinal plants for antiviral activity.

Semple SJ, Reynolds GD, O'Leary MC, Flower RL.

School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia,
Adelaide, Australia.

Extracts of 40 different plant species used in the traditional medicine of the
Australian Aboriginal people have been investigated for antiviral activity. The
extracts have been tested for activity against one DNA virus, human
cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and two RNA viruses, Ross River virus (RRV) and
poliovirus type 1, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The most active extracts
were the aerial parts of Pterocaulon sphacelatum (Asteraceae) and roots of
Dianella longifolia var. grandis (Liliaceae), which inhibited poliovirus at
concentrations of 52 and 250 microg/ml, respectively. The extracts of Euphorbia
australis (Euphorbiaceae) and Scaevola spinescens (Goodeniaceae) were the most
active against HCMV. Extracts of Eremophila latrobei subsp. glabra (Myoporaceae)
and Pittosporum phylliraeoides var. microcarpa (Pittosporaceae) exhibited
antiviral activity against RRV.

PMID: 9582007 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

99: J Pharm Pharmacol  1998 Feb;50(2):237-41 

Comparative analysis of the vascular actions of diterpenes isolated from
Euphorbia canariensis.

Miranda FJ, Alabadi JA, Orti M, Centeno JM, Pinon M, Yuste A, Sanz-Cervera JF,
Marco JA, Alborch E.

Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Hospital La Fe, Spain.

We have analysed the effects of 2,3-diepiingol 7,12-diacetate-8-isobutyrate
(compound 1), ingenol-3-angelate-17-benzoate (compound 2),
ingenol-3-angelate-17-benzoate-20-acetate (compound 3) and
s(2-methylbutyrate)-7-(2-methylpropionate) (compound 4), four diterpenes
isolated from E. canariensis, on the isometric tension developed by isolated
rabbit basilar and carotid arteries. Concentration-response curves to these
compounds were obtained cumulatively in both arteries at resting tension and
active tone (KCl, 50 mM). At resting tension a concentration-dependent
contraction was induced by the four compounds. In the basilar artery the order
of potency was 3=1>2=4, without significant differences between Emax values. In
the carotid artery the order of potency was 3>2=1=4 and there were no
significant differences between the Emax (maximum effect) values of compounds
1-3, all of which were higher than that of compound 4. In pre-contracted basilar
artery compounds 1-3 induced concentration-dependent relaxation and compound 4
was almost ineffective; the order of potency was 3>2=1 without significant
differences between Emax values. In the carotid artery with active tone the four
compounds tested induced further contractions; the order of potency was 3>2=4>1
without significant differences between Emax values. These results show that the
four diterpenes are potent active substances in rabbit basilar and carotid
arteries and that there are regional differences between their action. The four
compounds tested contract basilar and carotid arteries at resting tension.
Compounds 1-3 relax pre-contracted basilar artery but not carotid artery.

PMID: 9580339 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

100: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1997 Sep-Oct;92(5):719-24 

Evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii
(N.E.B.) latex: experimental test in an endemic area in the State of Minas
Gerais, Brazil.

Mendes NM, Vasconcellos MC, Baptista DF, Rocha RS, Schall VT.

Centro de Pesquisas Rene Rachou-FIOCRUZ, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Following the positive results obtained regarding the molluscicidal properties
of the latex of Euphorbia splendens that were corroborated in laboratory and
field tests under restricted conditions, a field study was conducted in
experimental streams located in an endemic area. After recording the average
annual fluctuations of vectors in three streams, a solution of E. splendens
latex at 12 ppm was applied in stream A, a solution of niclosamide at 3 ppm that
was applied in stream B and a third stream (C) remained untreated for negative
control. Applications of E. splendens and niclosamide resulted in a mortality of
100% among the snails collected in the streams A and B. No dead snails were
found in the negative control stream. A monthly follow-up survey conducted
during three consecutive months confirmed the return of vectors to both
experimental streams treated with latex and niclosamide. This fact has called
for a need to repeat application in order to reach the snails that remained
buried in the mud substrate or escaped to the water edge, as well as, newly
hatched snails that did not respond to the concentration of these molluscicides.
Adults snails collected a month following treatment led us to believe that they
had migrate from untreated areas of the streams to those previously treated.

PMID: 9566245 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

101: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1997 Sep-Oct;92(5):657-9 

Photodegradation of the molluscicidal latex of "crown-of-thorns" (Euphorbia
milii var hislopii).

Oliveira Filho EC, Paumgartten FJ.

Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica, Fundacao
Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

PMID: 9566235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

102: Braz J Med Biol Res  1997 Nov;30(11):1325-32 

Study of the embryofeto-toxicity of Crown-of-Thorns (Euphorbia milii) latex, a
natural molluscicide.

Souza CA, de-Carvalho RR, Kuriyama SN, Araujo IB, Rodrigues RP, Vollmer RS,
Alves EN, Paumgartten FJ.

Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica, FIOCRUZ,
Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

The crude latex of Crown-of-Thorns (Euphorbia milii var. hislopii) is a potent
plant molluscicide and a promising alternative to the synthetic molluscicides
used in schistosomiasis control. The present study was undertaken to investigate
the embryofeto-toxic potential of E. milii latex. The study is part of a
comprehensive safety evaluation of this plant molluscicide. Lyophilized latex
(0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) in corn oil was given by gavage to
Wistar rats (N = 100) from days 6 to 15 of pregnancy and cesarean sections were
performed on day 21 of pregnancy. The numbers of implantation sites, living and
dead fetuses, resorptions and corpora lutea were recorded. Fetuses were weighed,
examined for external malformations, and fixed for visceral examination, or
cleared and stained with Alizarin red S for skeleton evaluation. A reduction of
body weight minus uterine weight at term indicated that E. milii latex was
maternally toxic over the dose range tested. No latex-induced embryolethality
was noted at the lowest dose (125 mg/kg) but the resorption rate was markedly
increased at 250 mg/kg (62.5%) and 500 mg/kg (93.4%). A higher frequency of
fetuses showing signs of delayed ossification (control: 17.4%; 125 mg/kg: 27.4%
and 250 mg/kg: 62.8%; P < 0.05 vs control) indicated that fetal growth was
retarded at doses > or = 125 mg latex/kg body weight. No increase in the
proportion of fetuses with skeletal anomalies was observed at the lowest dose
but the incidence of minor skeletal malformations was higher at 250 mg/kg body
weight (control: 13.7%; 125 mg/kg: 14.8%; 250 mg/kg: 45.7%; P < 0.05 vs
control). Since a higher frequency of minor malformations was noted only at very
high doses of latex which are embryolethal and maternally toxic, it is
reasonable to conclude that this plant molluscicide poses no teratogenic hazard
or, at least, that this possibility is of a considerably low order of magnitude.

PMID: 9532242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

103: Contact Dermatitis  1998 Feb;38(2):113-4 

Contact dermatitis due to Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, simulating a phototoxic

Massmanian A.

Dermatology Department, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

PMID: 9506231 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

104: Am J Trop Med Hyg  1998 Jan;58(1):7-10 

The molluscicidal activity of Crown of Christ (Euphorbia splendens var.
hislopii) latex on snails acting as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni
and Schistosoma haematobium.

Schall VT, de Vasconcellos MC, de Souza CP, Baptista DF.

Department of Biology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The present study describes the action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var.
hislopii (E. milli) on species of the genus Bulinus and on Biomphalaria
pfeifferi, intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis in Africa, and the Brazilian
snails B. glabrata, B. tenagophila, and B. straminea, intermediate hosts of
schistosomiasis in Brazil. The impact of the latex on the egg masses and embryos
of B. glabrata was also evaluated. Using the standardized methodology of the
World Health Organization for testing plant-derived molluscicides, we obtained a
90% lethal dose (LD90) ranging from 0.13 ppm for B. glabrata subjected to
lyophilized latex to 4.0 ppm for B. pfeifferi tested with the natural latex.
This material has proved to be one of the most potent and specific plant
molluscicides discovered thus far, presenting advantages in terms of application
so that it could be used in programs involving community participation in
endemic areas in both Brazil and Africa.

PMID: 9452283 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

105: J Urol  1997 Dec;158(6):2093-6 

Comment in:
 J Urol. 1997 Dec;158(6):2097.

Urodynamic effects of intravesical resiniferatoxin in humans: preliminary
results in stable and unstable detrusor.

Lazzeri M, Beneforti P, Turini D.

Department of Urology, University of Ferrara, Firenze, Italy.

PURPOSE: Resiniferatoxin, a substance isolated from some species of euphorbia, a
cactus-like plant, presents pharmacological effects similar to those of
capsaicin. We studied the urodynamic effects of intravesical resiniferatoxin* in
normal subjects and patients with unstable detrusor contraction to provide
insight into the action mechanism of the molecule on sensory neurons and
possible future pharmacological and clinical use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total
of 15 subjects with normal (8 patients) or unstable detrusor muscle (1 with
detrusor instability and 6 with detrusor hyperreflexia) underwent urodynamic
assessment during and after intravesical instillation of resiniferatoxin. Volume
required to elicit the first desire to void, maximum bladder capacity and
maximum bladder pressure were recorded during instillation of resiniferatoxin at
a flow rate of 20 ml. per minute (normal subjects) or 15 minutes after
instillation of 30 cc of a saline solution containing 10(-8) M. of
resiniferatoxin and kept for 30 minutes in patients with unstable detrusor. The
experiment was examined by the analysis of variance for repeated measures and
post hoc comparisons were performed by Tukey-Kramer procedure. A p value <0.05
was accepted as significant. RESULTS: Resiniferatoxin did not decrease the
volume required to elicit the first desire to void and did not produce warm or
burning sensations at the suprapubic/urethral level during infusion in subjects
with normal detrusor function. In patients with bladder hyperactivity mean
bladder capacity increased from 175.28 ml. plus or minus standard deviation
36.05 to 280.85 ml. plus or minus standard deviation 93.33 (p <0.01) immediately
after treatment, and no significant modification of bladder pressure was
recorded. Four weeks after treatment, bladder capacity remained increased in 2
patients but mean capacity did not increase significantly from 175.28 ml. plus
or minus standard deviation 36.053 to 216.71 plus or minus standard deviation
86.91. The 2 patients with stable increase of bladder capacity reported
significant clinical improvement of frequency, nocturia and incontinence 4 weeks
later. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that in humans there may be substantial
differences in urodynamic effects between resiniferatoxin and capsaicin when the
drugs are instilled into the bladder. Further studies, in vitro and in vivo, are
necessary to define the pharmacological and clinical effects of resiniferatoxin.
Because resiniferatoxin did not produce warm or burning sensations at the
suprapubic/urethral level during infusion and seems to have rapid
desensitization, it could be an interesting alternative to intravesical
capsaicin in the treatment of select cases of bladder hyperactivity.

PMID: 9366319 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

106: Mol Biochem Parasitol  1997 Oct;89(1):51-9 

Characterisation of the two malate dehydrogenases from Phytomonas sp.
Purification of the glycosomal isoenzyme.

Uttaro AD, Opperdoes FR.

Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, Catholic University of Louvain
ICP-TROP/74.39, Brussels, Belgium.

Two NAD(H)-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isoenzymes were detected in
Phytomonas isolated from the lactiferous tubes of Euphorbia characias. The total
specific activity in crude extracts using oxaloacetate as substrate was 3.3 U
mg-1 of protein. The two isoenzymes had isoelectric points of 6.0 and 7.2,
respectively. The acidic isoform represented 80% of the total activity in the
cell and was present in the glycosome. It was purified to homogeneity by a
method involving hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose
followed by ionic exchange on CM-Sepharose and affinity chromatography on
Blue-Sepharose. The purified glycosomal MDH is a homodimeric protein with a
subunit molecular mass of 37 kDa and it has a low substrate specificity, since
it was able to reduce both aromatic and aliphatic alpha-ketoacids as substrate
including oxaloacetate, phenyl pyruvate, alpha-keto iso-caproate and pyruvate.
The apparent K(m)s for oxaloacetate and NADH were 166 and 270 microM,
respectively and for L-malate and NAD+, 3000 and 246 microM, respectively. The
basic isoform was present in the mitochondrion. It has a high substrate
specificity and an apparent K(m) of 132 and 63 microM for oxaloacetate and NADH,
respectively, and of 450 and 91 microM, respectively, with L-malate and NAD+.

PMID: 9297700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

107: Vet Hum Toxicol  1997 Aug;39(4):248-9 

Plant exposures ... a national profile of the most common plant genera.

Krenzelok EP, Jacobsen TD.

Pittsburgh Poison Center, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, School of Pharmacy,
University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Plant exposures are the 4th most common cause of poisoning and 85% of those
exposures involve the pediatric population. The large number of plant-related
exposures and the lack of knowledge about plant toxicity has led to plant
paranoia and considerable educational efforts to reduce the number of exposures.
These efforts are often dictated by misconceptions and folklore. American
Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) data on all plant exposures for
the years 1985-1994 were electronically analyzed by plant genus to establish a
frequency distribution of all plant exposures in the United States. A total of
912,534 plant exposure cases were analyzed to tabulate the top 100 plant
exposures. Philodendron spp were the most common exposures, followed by
Dieffenbachia spp, Euphorbia spp, Capsicum spp and Ilex spp. Plant exposures are
very common and poison information centers devote significant clinical service
and educational effort to manage these exposures and enhance the public's
awareness. Awareness of specific plant species and exposure frequency in a
poison center region can serve as a basis for staff education and as the
cornerstone for the development of appropriate information in poison prevention
and education brochures. This can direct better utilization of poison center
financial resources.

PMID: 9251180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

108: Br J Ophthalmol  1997 Jun;81(6):518 

Comment on:
 Br J Ophthalmol. 1996 Sep;80(9):823-6.

Euphorbia sap keratouveitis.

Eke T.

Publication Types:

PMID: 9274425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

109: J Pharm Pharmacol  1997 May;49(5):573-6 

Analysis of rabbit vascular responses to DBI, an ingol derivative isolated from
Euphorbia canariensis.

Miranda FJ, Alabadi JA, Perez P, Orti M, Centeno JM, Yuste A, Sanz-Cervera JF,
Marco JA, Alborch E.

Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Spain.

We have analysed the effects of 7,12-O-diacetyl-8-O-benzoil-2,3-diepiingol
(DBI), an ingol derivative isolated from E. canariensis, on isometric tension
developed by isolated rabbit basilar and carotid arteries.
Concentration-response curves to DBI (10(-8) - 3 x 10(-5) M) were obtained
cumulatively in both arteries at resting tension and active tone (KCI, 50 mM).
At resting tension, DBI induced a concentration-dependent contraction, which was
not inhibited in Ca(2+)-free medium. H7 (1-(5-isoquinoline
sulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dichloride) (10(-4) M) inhibited the DBI-induced
contraction both in basilar and in carotid arteries. Calmidazolium (10(-4) M)
inhibited the maximum contraction of the carotid artery to DBI, and completely
abolished the response in the basilar artery. In pre-contracted basilar arteries
DBI induced a concentration-dependent relaxation that was not modified by
incubation with NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 10(-5) M) or indomethacin (10(-5)
M). In the carotid artery with active tone DBI induced further contractions,
which were not significantly modified by L-NOARG (10(-5) M) and were potentiated
by indomethacin (10(-5) M). These results suggest that DBI contracts rabbit
basilar and carotid arteries by a mechanism that is independent of extracellular
Ca2+ and involves the participation both of protein kinase C and of calmodulin.
DBI relaxes basilar but not carotid arteries by a mechanism independent of the
liberation of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. In the carotid artery prostacyclin
but not nitric oxide partially counteracts the contractile action of DBI.

PMID: 9178197 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

110: Mol Biochem Parasitol  1997 Apr;85(2):213-9 

Purification and characterisation of a novel iso-propanol dehydrogenase from
Phytomonas sp.

Uttaro AD, Opperdoes FR.

Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels,

An alcohol dehydrogenase with two identical subunits and a subunit molecular
mass of 40,000 was purified from Phytomonas sp. isolated from the lactiferous
tubes of Euphorbia characias. Digitonin titration and subcellular fractionation
suggest that the enzyme is present in the mitochondrion. It utilises as
substrates, primary and secondary alcohols, is specific for NAD+ as coenzyme and
is inhibited by HgCl(2). The pH optimum for the oxidation of ethanol is 9.5, and
for the reverse reaction 8.5. The apparent Km values for iso-propanol and
ethanol are 40 and 34 microM, respectively and for the reverse reaction, with
acetone as substrate, 14 microM. The respective specific activities with
iso-propanol and ethanol as substrate, as measured in crude extracts are 300 and
16 mU (milligram of protein)-1. In isoelectric focusing the enzyme showed three
major bands with slightly differing isoelectric points that ranged from 6.4 to
6.8. The name, iso-propanol dehydrogenase is proposed for this enzyme.

PMID: 9106194 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

111: Nat Biotechnol  1997 Feb;15(2):178-82 

Phytoplasma induced free-branching in commercial poinsettia cultivars.

Lee IM, Klopmeyer M, Bartoszyk IM, Gundersen-Rindal DE, Chou TS, Thomson KL,
Eisenreich R.

Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

Free-branching poinsettia cultivars that produce numerous axillary shoots are
essential for propagating desirable multi-flowered poinsettias (Euphorbia
pulcherrima Wild. Klotz). For more than a decade, a biological agent has been
suspected to cause free-branching in poinsettias. Attempts to identify the
branching agent have failed. Isolation of the pathogen was accomplished using a
living host and it was concluded that an unculturable phytoplasma is the cause
of free-branching in poinsettias. This is the first reported example of a
pathogenic phytoplasma as the causal agent of a desirable and economically
important trait.

PMID: 9035146 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

112: Life Sci  1997;60(10):681-96 

Euphorbium: modern research on its active principle, resiniferatoxin, revives an
ancient medicine.

Appendino G, Szallasi A.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi di
Torino, Italy.

Resiniferatoxin, an ultrapotent capsaicin analog present in the latex of
Euphorbia resinifera, interacts at a specific membrane recognition site
(referred to as the vanilloid receptor), expressed by primary sensory neurons
mediating pain perception as well as neurogenic inflammation. Desensitization to
resiniferatoxin is a promising approach to mitigate neuropathic pain and other
pathological conditions in which sensory neuropeptides released from
capsaicin-sensitive neurons play a crucial role. Clinical trials to evaluate the
potential of topical resiniferatoxin treatment to relieve pain associated with
diabetic polyneuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia are in progress. Though
resiniferatoxin was isolated only two decades ago, the dried latex of Euphorbia
resinifera, called Euphorbium, has been in medicinal use since the time of
recorded history. This review highlights the most important events in the
history of this ancient medicine, from the first written record of the
therapeutic potential of Euphorbium (at the time of the reign of the Roman
Emperor Augustus) to the identification of its active principle as
resiniferatoxin in 1975. A brief overview of the enormous contribution of
resiniferatoxin to our current understanding of the anatomical localization,
function, and pharmacology of vanilloid receptors is provided. Lastly, the
mechanisms are summarized by which capsaicin and resiniferatoxin, despite
sharing receptors, may have dissimilar biological actions.

Publication Types:
Historical Article
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 9064473 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

113: Braz J Med Biol Res  1996 Nov;29(11):1519-23 

Tumor promoter-like activity of the molluscicidal latex of 'Crown-of-Thorns'
(Euphorbia milii var. hislopii) in the V79 metabolic cooperation assay.

Cruz CM, Kasper P, Cataldo A, Zamith HP, Paumgartten FJ.

Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Rio de
Janeiro, Brasil.

The latex of 'Crown-of-Thorns' (Euphorbia milii var. hislopii, syn. E.
splendens) has been shown to be a potent plant molluscicide that could be used
against the snails which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma trematodes.
However, a comprehensive toxicological evaluation of the latex is necessary
before its large-scale use in schistosomiasis control becomes possible. In fact,
one cause for concern is the presence of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in
several plants of the Euphorbiaceae family. Phorbol esters as well as a number
of other known tumor promoters share the common property of inhibiting metabolic
cooperation (i.e., exchange of low molecular weight molecules via gap junctions)
between Chinese hamster V79 cells in monolayer cultures. The present study was
undertaken to determine if latex of E. milii presents tumor promoter-like
activity is this short-term in vitro assay. Samples of lyophilized E. milii
latex were tested at a noncytotoxic concentration range (1, 10, 50 and 100
micrograms/ml) in three independent experiments.
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (10 ng/ml) was used as positive control. In
all three assays, E. milii latex consistently inhibited metabolic cooperation
between V79 cells at concentrations > or = 10 micrograms/ml. These results that
E. milii latex contains tumor-promoting substances. These findings suggest that
the use of crude latex as a molluscicide may pose a carcinogenic hazard to
people who are continuously exposed to the product.

PMID: 9196556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

114: J Nat Prod  1996 Nov;59(11):1051-5 

Constituents from the stem wood of Euphorbia quinquecostata with phorbol
dibutyrate receptor-binding inhibitory activity.

Mbwambo ZH, Lee SK, Mshiu EN, Pezzuto JM, Kinghorn AD.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy,
University of Illinois at Chicago 60612, USA.

Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOAc extract of the stem wood of Euphorbia
quinquecostata using a phorbol dibutyrate receptor-binding assay system as a
monitor yielded four inhibitory isolates (1-4), inclusive of one new compound,
17-hydroxyingenol 20-hexadecanoate (1), and three previously known compounds,
ingenol 20-hexadecanoate (2), ent-16 alpha,17-dihydroxyatisan-3-one (3), and
ent-3 beta,16 alpha,17-trihydroxyatisane (4). Also isolated from this extract
were 10 constituents inactive in this bioassay, namely,
2,2'-dihydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-3-methylacetophenone (5), a new structure, and nine
known compounds identified as ent-13S-hydroxyatis-16-ene-3, 14-dione;
2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone (xanthoxylin);
2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-3-methylacetophenone; 6-hydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin;
lupeol acetate; beta-sitosterol; sitosterol beta-D-glucopyranoside;
6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin; and 3,3',4'-tri-O-methyl-4-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl
(1"'-->6")-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]ellagic acid. The structures of compounds 1 and
5 were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods.

PMID: 8946746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

115: Am J Emerg Med  1996 Nov;14(7):671-4 

Poinsettia exposures have good outcomes...just as we thought.

Krenzelok EP, Jacobsen TD, Aronis JM.

Pittsburgh Poison Center, the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, and the Schools
of Pharmacy and Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, USA.

The poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) is a much-maligned plant which is thought
by the public and some health professionals to be extremely toxic. Despite
pronouncements by public health officials to the contrary, the poinsettia
continues to be recognized as a poisonous plant. To determine if there was any
validity to the toxicity claims, 849,575 plant exposures reported to the
American Association of Poison Control Centers were electronically analyzed.
Poinsettia exposures accounted for 22,793 cases and formed the subset that was
analyzed to critically evaluate the morbidity and mortality associated with
poinsettia exposures. There were no fatalities among all poinsettia exposures
and 98.9% were accidental in nature, with 93.3% involving children. The majority
of exposed patients (96.1%) were not treated in a health care facility and 92.4%
did not develop any toxicity related to their exposure to the poinsettia. Most
patients do not require any type of therapy and can be treated without referral
to a health care facility.

PMID: 8906768 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

116: Bioorg Med Chem  1996 Oct;4(10):1679-83 

New 19-acetoxyingol diterpenes from the latex of Euphorbia poisonii

Fatope MO, Zeng L, Ohayagha JE, McLaughlin JL.

Department of Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

The poisonous latex of Euphorbia poisonii gave bioactive
3,12-diacetyl-8-nicotinyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (1) together with its
less active congeners, 3,12-diacetyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (2) and
3-acetyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (3). The chemical structures of 1-3 were
determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, DEPT, HETCOR, COSY, NOESY,
HMQC and HMBC. The absolute configurations of the hydroxylated carbons in 2 and
3 were provisionally suggested by the Mosher ester method. Bioactivity-guided
isolation, structure determination and cytotoxic activity of the new ingols are

PMID: 8931937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

117: Br J Ophthalmol  1996 Sep;80(9):823-6 

Comment in:
 Br J Ophthalmol. 1997 Jun;81(6):518.

Euphorbia sap keratopathy: four cases and a possible pathogenic mechanism.

Scott IU, Karp CL.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami
School of Medicine, Florida 33139, USA.

AIMS: To report four cases of Euphorbia sap causing anterior segment toxicity.
METHODS: Medical records of four patients who presented with Euphorbia sap
keratoconjunctivitis were reviewed. Clinical findings were compared with
previously published reports. RESULTS: All of these patients experienced a
similar clinical course. Initial contact with Euphorbia sap caused punctate
epitheliopathy; patients noted immediate burning and photophobia, but no visual
loss. In all cases, patients experienced epithelial slough with delayed healing,
requiring approximately 9 days to heal the epithelial defect. Patients were
treated with topical antibiotics, pressure patching or a bandage contact lens,
and final visual acuities were excellent in all cases. A review of the
literature revealed that Euphorbia sap contains a diterpenoid diester which
exhibits antineoplastic activity in rodents. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who work
with Euphorbia plants should be cautioned to wear eye protection. Patients with
Euphorbia sap anterior segment toxicity should be informed that their condition
may worsen initially, but that visual outcome is generally excellent. The
progressive corneal epithelial sloughing and delayed corneal epithelial healing
may be secondary to the antineoplastic effects of Euphorbia sap.

PMID: 8942380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

118: Vet Hum Toxicol  1996 Aug;38(4):289-98 

Plant exposures: a state profile of the most common species.

Krenzelok EP, Jacobsen TD, Aronis JM.

Pittsburgh Poison Center, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Plant exposures are the fourth most common cause of poisoning and 86% of those
exposures involve the pediatric population. The large number of plant-related
exposures and the lack of knowledge about plant toxicity has led to plant
paranoia and considerable educational efforts to reduce the number of exposures.
These efforts are often dictated by misconceptions and folklore. AAPCC TESS data
on all plant exposures for the years 1985-1994 were electronically analyzed by
plant species and state to establish a frequency distribution in the US.
Aggregate national data was also tabulated. A total of 912,534 plant exposures
were analyzed to tabulate the top 30 plant exposures for each state.
Philodendron species were the most common exposures, followed by Dieffenbachia
species, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Capsicum annuum and Ilex species. There were
considerable differences between states relating to indoor vs outdoor plants and
native vs introduced varieties. Plant exposures are common and poison
information centers devote significant clinical service and educational effort
to manage them and to enhance public awareness. Recognition of specific plant
species and exposure frequency in a poison center region can be a basis for
staff education and the development of appropriate poison prevention education
brochures. This can direct better utilization of poison center's resources.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 8829350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

119: Planta Med  1996 Aug;62(4):322-5 

Cytotoxic triterpenoids from the leaves of Euphorbia pulcherrima.

Smith-Kielland I, Dornish JM, Malterud KE, Hvistendahl G, Romming C, Bockman OC,
Kolsaker P, Stenstrom Y, Nordal A.

Institute for Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Norway.

Two cytotoxic triterpenes have been isolated from Euphorbia pulcherrima. Their
structures and stereochemistry have been established from NMR, IR, and EI-mass
spectroscopy. The compounds were identified as 9,19-cycloart-23-ene-3
beta,25-diol and, 9,19-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol. Cytotoxicity evaluation
was performed using Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. While cycloartenol induced no
cytotoxic activity against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, both isolated
triterpenes exhibited cell inactivating effects. The IC50 is approximately 7.5
microM, while the IC90 is approximately 13.5 microM for 9,19-cycloart-25-ene-3
beta,24-diol. The 3 beta,25-diol compound is 50% less active.

PMID: 8792663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

120: Phytochemistry  1996 May;42(2):473-8 

Aleppicatines A and B from Euphorbia aleppica.

Oksuz S, Gurek F, Lin LZ, Gil RR, Pezzuto JM, Cordell GA.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Istanbul, Turkey.

Two new pentacyclic diterpene polyesters, aleppicatine A and B, have been
isolated from the acetone extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia aleppica, in
addition to five known cycloartane-type triterpenes (24-methylenecycloartanol,
cyclolaudenol cycloart-25-en-3 beta-ol-24-one, cycloart-22-en-3 beta,25-diol and
cycloart-25-en-3 beta,24-diol), scopoletin, kaempferol and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid
and its methyl ether. The structures of the new compounds and their hydrolysis
products have been extensively characterized by high-field NMR spectroscopic
methods, including 2D NMR techniques.

PMID: 8688177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

121: Mutat Res  1996 May;368(1):15-20 

Evaluation of the mutagenicity of the molluscicidal latex of Christ's Crown
(Euphorbia milii var. hislopii) in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo.

Zamith HP, Paumgartten FJ, Speit G.

Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, INCQS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The latex of Christ's Crown (Euphorbia milii var. hislopii, syn. E. splendens
var. hislopii) is a highly active plant molluscicide and could be used for snail
control to reduce the prevalence of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. In the
course of its toxicological evaluation, the mutagenicity of the latex of
Euphorbia milii was tested in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. Latex was
investigated for its capability of inducing gene mutations and chromosome
aberrations in V79 cells in the absence and presence of S9-mix. Concentrations
up to 800 micrograms/ml neither induced gene mutations at the HPRT locus nor
chromosome aberrations. Latex had no effect on the frequencies of chromosome
aberrations in the bone marrow of male and female rats at a dose of 1000 mg/kg.
The results indicate that latex of E. milii is not mutagenic in mammalian cells
in vitro and in vivo and its use as a molluscicide does not pose a mutagenic
hazard for humans.

PMID: 8637506 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

122: J Med Chem  1996 Feb 16;39(4):1005-8 

Selectively cytotoxic diterpenes from Euphorbia poisonii.

Fatope MO, Zeng L, Ohayaga JE, Shi G, McLaughlin JL.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and
Pharmacal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 49707, USA.

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the latex of Euphorbia poisonii Pax.
(Euphorbiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of a new tigliane
diterpene, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-(9,10-methylene)undecanoate (3), together with
five known diterpenes (1,2,4-6). When evaluated for cytotoxicity in a panel of
six human solid tumor cell lines, the diterpene esters, 1-3, 5, and 6, were
selectively cytotoxic for the human kidney carcinoma (A-498) cell line with
potencies for 2 and 3 exceeding that of adriamycin by ten thousand times.
Details of the isolations, structural analyses, and cytotoxic activities are

PMID: 8632402 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

123: Mol Biochem Parasitol  1996 Feb-Mar;76(1-2):43-56 

An M(r) 145,000 low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-binding protein is conserved
throughout the Kinetoplastida order.

Bastin P, Stephan A, Raper J, Saint-Remy JM, Opperdoes FR, Courtoy PJ.

Cell Biology Unit, Catholic University of Louvain and International Institute of
Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Brussels, Belgium.

In view of the importance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor in
Trypanosoma brucei, we have examined whether other bloodstream trypanosomes of
medical and veterinary importance (T.b. rhodesiense, T. equiperdum, T. vivax, T.
congolense), but also related parasites developing in mammalian (Leishmania
donovani) and non-mammalian hosts (Crithidia luciliae and Phytomonas sp.
isolated from Euphorbia), would possess an LDL-receptor of their own. (1) All
these parasites specifically accumulate human 125I-LDL with a relatively
2.5-fold higher rate for bloodstream trypanosomes. (2) A mixture of monoclonal
antibodies raised against T.b. brucei LDL-receptor inhibit binding of LDL to all
species but with different efficiency. (3) A single glycoprotein of similar M(r)
(gp145) is isolated by LDL-affinity chromatography from all the above species,
as well as from both human serum-resistant and sensitive strain of T.b.
rhodesiense, and from the bodonid member of the Kinetoplastida Trypanoplasma
borelli. (4) Several control experiments including 35S-metabolic labeling of
procyclic T.b. brucei and of C. luciliae followed by LDL-affinity chromatography
or immunoprecipitation demonstrate that gp145 is indeed synthesised by the
parasites and is not a contaminant of the experimental system. (5) In
immunoblots and ELISA, these gp145 cross-react with the polyclonal and
monoclonal antibodies raised against the LDL-receptor of T.b. brucei, the
highest degree of cross-reactivity being found among the members of the
Trypanozoon subgroup. (6) Finally, immunisation of mice with the purified
LDL-receptor from one strain of T.b. brucei is not sufficient to confer durable
protection against another strain of this parasite.

PMID: 8919994 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

124: Biol Control  1996 Feb;57(3):105-13 

Biology, Ecology, and Host Specificity of European Aphthona spp. (Coleoptera,
Chrysomelidae) Used as Biocontrol Agents for Leafy Spurge, Euphorbia esula
(Euphorbiaceae), in North America

Gassmann A, Schroeder D, Maw E, Sommer G.

International Institute of Biological Control, European Station, Delemont,
CH-2800, Switzerland

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an herbaceous perennial of European origin
that was accidentally introduced into North America where it has become a
serious weed in pastures and rangelands. Five species of root-feeding
chrysomelid beetles in the genus Aphthona have been released in North America
for the biological control of leafy spurge. They originate from central and
eastern Europe and occur in different habitats. The brown species, Aphthona
cyparissiae, Aphthona flava, and Aphthona nigriscutis, occur predominantly in
open dry habitats, and the black species, Aphthona czwalinai and Aphthona
lacertosa, prefer moister habitats. All five species are univoltine and
overwinter as larvae. The host range of these five Aphthona species is
restricted to species in the subgenus Esula.

PMID: 8660719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

125: Teratog Carcinog Mutagen  1996;16(2):125-38 

An investigation of some Turkish herbal medicines in Salmonella typhimurium and
in the COMET assay in human lymphocytes.

Basaran AA, Yu TW, Plewa MJ, Anderson D.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Medicinal plants play a major role in the life of Turkish people and of late
medicinal plant usage has increased in many countries. Green plants in general
contain mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, but there is little information
about the biological activities of herbal medicine. In the present study,
therefore, various Turkish medicinal herbs were investigated for their genotoxic
potential in the Salmonella typhimurium microsomal activation assay and the
alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (COMET) assay. Extracts from these
medicinal herbs and some fractions of these extracts were examined. The species
investigated were Arctium minus, Ecballium elatterium, Momordica charantia,
Plantago major, Urtica dioica, Viscum album, Salvia triloba, Euphorbia rigida,
Stachys lavandulifolia, Acteoside, Abies nordmannia. They are used for various
immune disorders and are applied either topically or taken orally as a herbal
tea. Of the 19 samples of the extracts and fractions investigated, none produced
a positive response in strains TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolic
activation, but all produced an increase above negative control values in the
COMET assay. Some extracts were investigated further and produced dose-related
increases. In the case of Urtica and Euphorbia species, where two fractions from
these plants were examined, one fraction produced a greater response than the
other. It is suggested that the lesser response of the fractions might be due to
less DNA strand-breaking agents in the fractions or they may have antigenotoxic
properties. The breaks that are detected in the COMET assay could be
alkali-labile AP-sites and intermediates in base- or nucleotide-excision repair
and are difficult to interpret in terms of hazard for man. Further studies with
additional genotoxicity assays would be required to make such a prediction.

PMID: 8875742 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

126: J Ethnopharmacol  1995 Dec 1;49(2):115-8 

Antibacterial effect of theaflavin, polyphenon 60 (Camellia sinensis) and
Euphorbia hirta on Shigella spp.--a cell culture study.

Vijaya K, Ananthan S, Nalini R.

Department of Microbiology, University of Madras, Taramani, India.

Antibacterial effect of compounds extracted from Camellia sinensis L. and the
methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L. were studied against dysentery causing
Shigella spp. using the Vero cell line. Cytotoxicity studies of the extracts
were performed using the cell line and the non-cytotoxic concentration of the
extract was tested for antibacterial activity against the cytopathic dose of the
pathogen. These extracts were found to be non-cytotoxic and effective
antibacterial agents.

PMID: 8847884 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

127: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1995 Dec;20(12):744-5, 764 

[Chemical constituents of Euphorbia hylonoma Hand. -Mazz]

[Article in Chinese]

Guo Z, Zhu R, Lu J, Li Y.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Xi'an Medical University.

Three compounds have been isolated from the root of Euphorbia hylonoma and
identified as 3,3',4-tri-O- methylellagic acid, beta-sitosterol and sucrose by
physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The compound
3,3'4-tri-O-methylellagic acid is discovered in Euphorbia for the first time.

PMID: 8703340 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

128: Biochem J  1995 Oct 15;311 ( Pt 2):495-503 

The glycoinositol-phospholipids of Phytomonas.

Redman CA, Schneider P, Mehlert A, Ferguson MA.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, U.K.

The Phytomonas spp. are trypanosomatid parasites of plants. A polar glycolipid
fraction of a Phytomonas sp., isolated from the plant Euphorbia characias and
grown in culture, was fractionated into four major glycolipid species (Phy 1-4).
The glycolipids were analysed by chemical and enzymic modifications, composition
and methylation analyses, electrospray mass spectrometry and microsequencing
after HNO2 deamination and NaB3H4 reduction. The water-soluble headgroup of the
Phy2 glycolipid was also analysed by 1H NMR. All four glycolipids were shown to
be glycoinositol-phospholipids (GIPLs) with phosphatidylinositol (PI) moieties
containing the fully saturated alkylacylglycerol lipids
1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-palmitoylglycerol and 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-stearoylglycerol. The
structures of the Phy 1-4 GIPLs are: Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-6Man alpha 1-4GlcN
alpha 1-6PI, Glc alpha 1-2(NH2-CH2CH2-HPO4-)Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-6Man alpha
1-4GlcN alpha 1-6PI, [formula: see text] Glc alpha 1-2(NH2CH2CH2-HPO4-)Man alpha
1-2Man alpha 1-6Man alpha 1-4(NH2-CH2CH2-HPO4-)GlcN alpha 1-6PI [formula: see
text] and Glc alpha 1-2Glc alpha 1-2(NH2CH2-CH2-HPO4-)Man alpha 1-2Man alpha
1-6Man alpha 1-4(NH2CH2CH2-HPO4-)-GlcN alpha 1-6PI. [formula: see text] The
Phytomonas GIPLs represent a novel series of structures. This is the first
description of the chemical structure of cell-surface molecules of this plant
pathogen. The Phytomonas GIPLs are compared with those of other trypanosomatid
parasites and are discussed with respect to trypanosomatid phylogenetic

PMID: 7487886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

129: J Ethnopharmacol  1995 May;46(2):73-93 

The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.

Rivera D, Obon C.

Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia,

The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely
interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region,
which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora,
geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past
abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259
species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are:
Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago
officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium
nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum,
Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica,
Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex
maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum
farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus
caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal
cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which
grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic,
haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 7650952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

130: Biochem Mol Biol Int  1995 May;35(6):1199-204 

Purification and partial characterization of a lectin from Euphorbia neriifolia

Seshagirirao K, Prasad MN.

Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad,

A lectin was purified from Euphorbia neriifolia latex to homogeneity by affinity
chromatography on Sepharose 4B. The protein appears to be a dimer with
approximate M(r) of 60,000 on gel filtration and showing a single band at M(r)
32,000 in SDS-PAGE, and contains 12.3% carbohydrate. It agglutinated trypsinized
human and rabbit erythrocytes, but not sheep erythrocytes. However,
sialidase-treated sheep erythrocytes were agglutinated. The galactose and
galactose containing sugars inhibited the heamagglutination with increased
beta-anomeric specificity. The Euphorbia lectin possesses mitogenic activity
with murine spleen lymphocytes but it does not inhibit protein synthesis in
rabbit reticulocyte lysate.

PMID: 7492957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

131: Br J Cancer  1995 Apr;71(4):776-9 

Tumour promoter activity in Malaysian Euphorbiaceae.

Norhanom AW, Yadav M.

Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.

Herbal medication has been practised by the rural Malaysian Malays for a long
time. However, the long-term side-effects have never been studied. In the
present study, 48 species of Euphorbiaceae were screened for tumour-promoter
activity by means of an in vitro assay using a human lymphoblastoid cell line
harbouring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Twenty-seven per cent (13 out of
48) of the species tested were found to be positive, and in four species, namely
Breynia coronata Hk.f, Codiaeum variegatum (L) Bl, Euphorbia atoto and
Exocoecaria agallocha, EBV-inducing activity was observed when the plant
extracts were tested at low concentrations of between 0.2 and 1.2 micrograms
ml-1 in cell culture. This observation warrants attention from the regular users
of these plants because regular use of plants with tumour-promoting activity
could well be an aetiological factor for the promotion of tumours among rural
Malaysian Malays.

PMID: 7710943 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

132: Phytochemistry  1995 Apr;38(6):1457-62 

Four diterpene esters from Euphorbia myrsinites.

Oksuz S, Gurek F, Gil RR, Pengsuparp T, Pezzuto JM, Cordell GA.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Istanbul, Turkey.

The Turkish species Euphorbia myrsinites has yielded four new tetracyclic
diterpene tetraesters from a cytotoxic acetone extract, in addition to the known
cycloartane-type triterpenoids and betulin. The new compounds and their
hydrolysis product have been extensively characterized by high field
spectroscopic techniques, and were shown to be four new tetraesters of the
parent alcohol, myrsinol.

PMID: 7540394 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

133: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1995 Mar-Apr;90(2):191-4 

Effect of Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70), Anacardium occidentale hexane extract
and Euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818),
under laboratory conditions.

Jurberg P, Sarquis O, dos Santos JA, Ferreira Rda C.

Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

The repellent effect of the molluscicides Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70),
Anacardium occidentale and the latex of Euphorbia splendens on Biomphalaria
glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape
behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the LD 50. The
total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the
control group provided a "Natural Escape Index". The comparison between this
total and the total number of surviving snails in each group exposed to the
different dosages of the molluscicides after 24 hr provided the "Molluscicide
Escape Index" and the detection of a "Repellency Range" to these snails. The
escape indexes for Niclosamide, A. occidentale and E. splendens were 10%, 6.22%
and 6.44% respectively. Repellency occurred at the following concentration
ranges: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 ppm Bayluscide, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm A. occidentale
and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 ppm E. splendens. The Natural Escape Index
obtained in the control group was zero.

PMID: 8531656 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

134: J Nat Prod  1995 Mar;58(3):408-13 

New myrsinol-related polyfunctional pentacyclic diterpene esters from roots of
Euphorbia prolifera.

Wu D, Sorg B, Hecker E.

Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science, People's Republic of

Five Euphorbia substances, SPr1-SPr5, were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia
prolifera. They were found to have similar structures but were inactive in a
mouse ear inflammation assay. By nmr analysis and after single-crystal X-ray
crystallography the structure of SPr5 was established as a hexaester
(tetraacetate-benzoate-propionate) of a hitherto unknown polyfunctional
pentacyclic diterpene parent alcohol, structurally related to myrsinol. As
judged from its nmr spectra, SPr4 is an analogue of SPr5, carrying an
isobutyrate substituent in place of a benzoate ester functionality. SPr1-SPr3
were partially characterized by their mass spectra as esters of diterpene parent
alcohols possibly related to the myrsinol structure. SPr1-SPr5 may represent one
of the product lines branching off the proposed main route of biogenesis of the
oligocyclic diterpenoid skin irritants and tumor promoters occurring in many,
but not all, of the species in the plant families Thymelaeaceae and

PMID: 7775985 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

135: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1995 Mar;20(3):169-71, 192 

[Chemical constituents of Euphorbia nematocypha Hand.-Mazz.]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhao K, Liu S, Yang J, Li X, Xu G, Jin R, Xu L.

Beijing Medical College of PLA.

Four compounds were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia nematocypha. Three of
them were identified as A'-neogammacer-22(29)-en-3 beta-ol (18 beta.21 alpha)
(II), jolkinolide E (III) and beta-sitoesterol (IV). Among them, II was obtained
from the genus Euphorbia and III from this plant for the first time.

PMID: 7646781 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

136: Prep Biochem  1995 Feb-May;25(1-2):11-9 

Fractionation and characterization of two forms of peroxidase from Oryza sativa.

Padiglia A, Medda R, Pazzaglia G, Rescigno A, Cruciani E, Floris G.

Istituto di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Cagliari, Italy.

Peroxidase (E.C., hydrogen donor oxidoreductase) is widely distributed
and has been isolated from many higher plants (1). The wide distribution of the
enzyme suggests that it could be of great biological importance. However the
role that it plays in metabolism is not clear due to the large number of
reactions it catalyzes and the considerable number of isozymic species (2). In
tomato plants, Evans and Aldridge (3) separated out six isoperoxidases and in a
later paper Evans reported 12 isoperoxidases from tomato shoots (4). A
homogeneous tomato fruit peroxidase isozyme was obtained by Jen et al. (5) using
hydrophobic chromatography. Isozymes were not detected in Euphorbia characias
peroxidase (6), in Ipomoea batatas peroxidase (7) and in Hordeum vulgare
peroxidase (8). The simultaneous presence of Cu (II) amine oxidase and
peroxidase in cell walls suggests that the peroxide generated on oxidation of
the amines could be utilized by the peroxidase (6,8,9). In the graminea Oryza
sativa, widely distributed, an FAD amine oxidase is present that oxidizes
diamines (10). In this plant we also found two isoperoxidases called perox I and
II. Only perox I was purified to homogeneity and its enzymatic, physical and
chemical properties have been studied.

PMID: 7603969 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

137: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1995 Jan;20(1):3-4 

[A review of the processing of Euphorbia kansui Liou]

[Article in Chinese]

Liang A.

Publication Types:
Historical Article
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 7626206 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

138: Can J Microbiol  1995;41 Suppl 1:14-21 

Formation of novel poly(hydroxyalkanoates) from long-chain fatty acids.

Eggink G, de Waard P, Huijberts GN.

Agrotechnological Research Institute (ATO-DLO), Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) were isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 44T1
cultivated on euphorbia oil and castor oil. With the aid of 2-D proton NMR
spectra and proton-detected multiple bond coherence NMR spectra the structures
of the PHAs were determined. In addition to the usual PHA constituents (C6-C14
3-hydroxy fatty acids), PHAs formed from euphorbia oil contained delta
8,9-epoxy-3-hydroxy-5c-tetradecenoate, and probably delta
6,7-epoxy-3-hydroxydodecanoate and delta 4,5-epoxy-3-hydroxydecanoate. These
novel constituents account for approximately 15% of the total amount of monomers
and are clearly generated via beta-oxidation of vernolic acid (delta
12,13-epoxy-9c-octadecenoic acid), the main component of euphorbia oil. In PHAs
formed from castor oil, 7% of the monomers found were derived from ricinoleic
acid (12-hydroxy-9c-octadecenoic acid). The presence of
3,8-dihydroxy-5c-tetradecenoate was clearly demonstrated. Furthermore, NMR
analysis strongly suggested the presence of 3,6-dihydroxydodecanoate,
6-hydroxy-3c-dodecenoate, and 4-hydroxydecanoate.

PMID: 7606658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

139: Parasitol Res  1995;81(7):575-81 

Isolation, in vitro culture, ultrastructure study, and characterization by
lectin-agglutination tests of Phytomonas isolated from tomatoes (Lycopersicon
esculentum) and cherimoyas (Anona cherimolia) in southeastern Spain.

Sanchez-Moreno M, Fernandez-Becerra C, Mascaro C, Rosales MJ, Dollet M, Osuna A.

Instituto de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada,

Plants of Lycopersicon esculentum (grown in greenhouses) and Anona cherimolia
cultivated in southeastern Spain were examined for the presence of
trypanosomatid flagellates. Kinetoplastid protozoa were found in the fruits but
not in the phloem or other plant tissues. Parasites were detected from the onset
of fruiting. Isolates were detected from the onset of fruiting. Isolates were
adapted to in vitro culturing in monophase media. The form and the structural
organization was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The
parasites showed an ultrastructural pattern similar to that of other species of
the genus Phytomonas. In tomatoes experimentally inoculated with flagellates
cultivated in vitro, we observed that the parasites did not lose their
infectious capacity. Three strains of trypanosomatids of the genus Phytomonas,
isolated from different species of Euphorbia (E. characias and E. hyssopifolia)
and from Cocos nucifera, were compared with our isolates by lectin-agglutination
tests. Our isolates were different from the two strains isolated from Euphorbia,
but with this technique we could not differentiate our isolates from those of
the coconut, nor could we differentiate between the isolates, their
ultrastructural similarity together with their similar behavior in the
lectin-agglutination test suggesting that these isolates have a common origin.

PMID: 7479649 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

140: Planta Med  1994 Dec;60(6):594-6 

Biologically active compounds from the Euphorbiaceae; 2. Two triterpenoids of
Euphorbia cyparissias.

Oksuz S, Gil RR, Chai H, Pezzuto JM, Cordell GA, Ulubelen A.

Publication Types:

PMID: 7809217 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

141: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  1994 Nov 22;91(24):11328-32 

Lipases of the euphorbiaceae family: purification of a lipase from Euphorbia
characias latex and structure-function relationships with the B chain of ricin.

Moulin A, Teissere M, Bernard C, Pieroni G.

Centre de Biochimie et de Biologie Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique, Marseille, France.

A lipase from the latex of Euphorbia characias was purified using a method
involving extraction with apolar solvent and adsorption chromatography on silica
gel. The lipase (specific activity, 1500 international units/mg of protein) was
eluted from silica gel complexes with a lipid. The main protein fraction, which
had a molecular mass of 38 kDa, was inactive when dissociated from the lipid
fraction. When the lipid and protein fractions were reassociated, 72% of the
lipolytic activity was recovered. This lipolytic activity was inhibited by
diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate, which was shown to bind the lipase with a molar
ratio of 0.75. High specific activities (1000 international units/mg) were
measured for the lipase of E. characias on lipid extracts rich in galactosyl
diacylglycerols. The apolipase was sequenced up to residue 23. The B chain of
ricin has a strong homology (43.5%) with that sequence and cross-reacted with
antibodies raised against the purified lipase from E. characias. The activity of
the B chain of ricin was comparable (54 international units/mg) to that of the
apolipase of E. characias (100 international units/mg) mixed with the same lipid
cofactor complex. The primary structure (residues 68-72) of the B chain of ricin
contains the lipase consensus sequence Gly-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Gly. Its reactivity with
diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate indicates the presence of an activated serine
that, in addition to its well-documented lectin activity for galactosides,
suggests that the B chain of ricin may be a galactosyl diacylglycerol lipase,
closely analogous to the lipase from E. characias.

PMID: 7972058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

142: In Vivo  1994 Nov-Dec;8(6):1019-22 

Cryptic dysfunction of cellular immunity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) carriers and its actualization by an environmental immunosuppressive

Sugiura M, Imai S, Sakurada K, Miyazaki T, Osato T.

Department of Virology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 4 asymptomatic HIV-1 carriers with normally
retained EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell activity were exposed to EBV and
incubated with 0.2 ng/ml 4-deoxyphorbol ester, an immunosuppressive substance
derived from an African plant Euphorbia tirucalli. The regression of EBV-induced
B-cell transformation by EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cells was significantly
impaired in the presence of a small amount of 4-deoxyphorbol ester, but not so
in 5 HIV-1-seronegative healthy counterparts. When the EBV-specific cytotoxic
T-cells from the asymptomatic carriers were exposed to 0.2ng/ml 4-deoxyphorbol
ester and incubated with 51Cr-labeled autologous EBV-transformed B lymphocytes,
the released radioactivity was significantly smaller than that of the healthy
counterparts. The results suggest that the cellular immunity of the asymptomatic
HIV-1 carriers is cryptically impaired, and the cryptic immunological
dysfunction is actualized by exposure to a small amount of the immunosuppressive
substance, a dose which does not affect the immunity of uninfected healthy

PMID: 7772730 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

143: Mol Biochem Parasitol  1994 Oct;67(2):321-31 

Aerobic and anaerobic glucose metabolism of Phytomonas sp. isolated from
Euphorbia characias.

Chaumont F, Schanck AN, Blum JJ, Opperdoes FR.

Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, International Institute of Cellular and
Molecular Pathology, Brussels, Belgium.

Metabolic studies on Phytomonas sp. isolated from the lactiferous tubes of the
latex-bearing spurge Euphorbia characias indicate that glucose is the preferred
energy and carbon substrate during logarithmic growth. In stationary phase cells
glucose consumption was dramatically reduced. Glucose consumption and
end-product formation were measured on logarithmically growing cells, both under
aerobic (air and 95% O2/5% CO2) and anaerobic (95% N2/5% CO2 and 100% N2)
conditions. The rate of glucose consumption slightly increased under anaerobic
conditions indicating that Phytomonas lacks a 'reverse Pasteur' effect contrary
to the situation encountered in Leishmania major. Major end-products of glucose
catabolism under aerobic conditions, detected by enzymatic and NMR measurements,
were acetate, ethanol and carbon dioxide and under anaerobic conditions ethanol,
glycerol and carbon dioxide. Smaller amounts of pyruvate, succinate, L-malate,
L-lactate, phosphoenolpyruvate, alanine and aspartate were also detected.

PMID: 7870136 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

144: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo)  1994 Sep;42(9):1803-7 

Tannins and related polyphenols of euphorbiaceous plants. XI. Three new
hydrolyzable tannins and a polyphenol glucoside from Euphorbia humifusa.

Yoshida T, Amakura Y, Liu YZ, Okuda T.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Japan.

Three new hydrolyzable tannins, euphormisins M1, M2, and M3, were isolated from
Euphorbia humifusa WILLD., and respectively characterized as
1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-4-O- brevifolincarboxyl-beta-D-glucose (19), an oxidative
metabolite (23) of geraniin, and 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-alpha-D-glucose (18), by
spectroscopic and chemical methods. A new ellagic acid glucoside (16) and
fifteen known tannins, including geraniin (8) and four dimers [euphorbins A
(13), B (14), excoecarianin (15) and eumaculin A (12)], were also isolated.

PMID: 7954930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

145: Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health  1994 Sep;25(3):419-24 

Perspectives of using Euphorbia splendens as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis
control programs.

Baptista DF, Vasconcellos MC, Lopes FE, Silva IP, Schall VT.

Departmento de Biologia-IOC/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

A total of 1,426 species of plants had been tested in order to find out a
vegetal-derived molluscicide against the vectors of Schistosoma mansoni.
Euphorbia splendens is one of the most promising molluscicides. In this article
we briefly present the main aspects that have to be considered to use this plant
as a molluscicide, which include some agricultural aspects and operational
methods for application. This can be done by the extraction of the active
principles (millaminas) present in the latex or in the raw juice obtained
through total maceration of plants. The culture of E. splendens, which spreads
out by vegetative sprouts, showed an annual average growth of 30 cm. After 1.5
years the average productivity of crude latex with a DL90 of 12 ppm
concentration, was 1 liter by 8m2 by cultivated area. This amount is enough to
treat a volume of water of 97,200 liters. A comparative analysis between the
cost of snail control through synthetic molluscicides was carried out based upon
the data presented by Jobim (1979) for six controlling methods in several
countries, and some cost aspects for E. splendens. This analysis was done
considering a geographic parameter expressed by the index cubic meters of
treated habitat per square kilometer, from which we can obtain an estimate
dimension of the geographic area to be cultivated with E. splendens necessary to
treat the same volume of water treated by synthetic molluscicides.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 7777901 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

146: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1994 Jun;19(6):325-7, 382 

[Identification of Euphorbia humifusa Wind, and E. maculata Raf. from its
confused species E. thymifolia L.]

[Article in Chinese]

Chu XL, Fan CS, Luo YZ.

Jiangxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang.

PMID: 7945877 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

147: Afr J Med Med Sci  1994 Jun;23(2):161-3 

Characterisation of ingenol: an inflammatory diterpene from some Nigerian
Euphorbia and Elaeophorbia species.

Abo KA.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Medicine,
University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Inflammatory latices of Euphorbia deightonii, Euphorbia desmondi, Elaeophorbia
drupifera and Elaeophorbia grandiflora were found to contain ingenol as the
parent alcohol of the diterpene esters. The chemotaxonomic significance of the
occurrence of ingenol in the genus Elaeophorbia is discussed.

PMID: 7625305 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

148: Anticancer Res  1994 May-Jun;14(3A):933-6 

African Burkitt's lymphoma: a plant, Euphorbia tirucalli, reduces Epstein-Barr
virus-specific cellular immunity.

Imai S, Sugiura M, Mizuno F, Ohigashi H, Koshimizu K, Chiba S, Osato T.

Department of Virology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Endemicity of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) coincides with profusion of a plant
Euphorbia tirucalli in tropical Africa. E. tirucalli contains 4-deoxyphorbol
ester that enhances Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of B lymphocytes. In this
study, we found that 4-deoxyphorbol ester reduced EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell
function. Furthermore, the B lymphocytes dually exposed to EBV and
4-deoxyphorbol ester were resistant to EBV-specific T cell cytotoxicity, through
down-regulation of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the major target to
EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cells. These immunologic findings strengthen the notion
that E. tirucalli may be an important environmental risk factor for the genesis
of African BL.

PMID: 8074496 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

149: Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi  1994 May;14(5):282-4, 261 

[Clinical analysis of 72 epileptic patients treated with alkaline extract of
Euphorbia fisheriana]

[Article in Chinese]

Liu YX, Wang MZ, Sun XF.

Dept. of Neurology, Shanxi Med. College, Taiyuan.

The effect of 72 epileptic patients treated with alkaline extract of Euphorbia
fisheriana (EF) was reported. 22 of them with intractable epilepsy were compared
with the treatment of both single-blind and placebo. The results showed that the
total effective rate with EF was 78%, its marked effective rate was 42% and the
effective rate 36%. The epileptic patients reduced their frequency of seizures
significantly (P < 0.05), while the effective rate of 22 epileptic patients with
single-blind treatment was 59%, and that with placebo was 32%. There was a
significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). The active principle
of Euphorbia fisheriana was Euphorbia alkaloid. There was no obvious adverse
effect in clinical observation. It is considered that Euphorbia fisheriana is
rich in resource, cheap, and with marked anticonvulsant effect.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 7950213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

150: J Ethnopharmacol  1994 Apr;42(2):111-6 

Influence of some traditional medicinal plants of Senegal on prostaglandin

Hiermann A, Bucar F.

Institut fur Pharmakognosie der Universitat Graz, Austria.

Aqueous extracts of Combretum micranthum G. Don, Euphorbia hirta L., Guiera
senegalensis Lam. and Melaleuca leucadendron L. were investigated for their
influence on prostaglandin biosynthesis (PG I2, PG E2, PG D2). Only the extract
of Euphorbia hirta strongly reduced the release of prostaglandins I2, E2, and
D2. Additionally Euphorbia hirta extracts exerted an inhibitory effect on
platelet aggregation and depressed the formation of carrageenin induced rat paw
oedema. The chemical nature of the active principle of Euphorbia hirta could be
characterized as (a) compound(s) of medium polarity in the molecular weight
range of 1000 to 3000 Da.

PMID: 7980813 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

151: Farmaco  1994 Mar;49(3):167-74 

Constituents of euphorbiaceae 12. Comm. (1). Isolation and structure elucidation
of four new cerebrosides from Euphorbia biglandulosa Desf.

Falsone G, Cateni F, Visintin G, Lucchini V, Wagner H, Seligmann O.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste.

Four new cerebrosides 4-6 were isolated from the latex of Euphorbia biglandulosa
Desf. and their structures determined. Normal and reverse-phase flash
chromatography was effective for the isolation of the cerebrosides, and FAB-MS
spectrometry, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DQF-COSY and HMQC experiments and chemical
reactions were useful in elucidating their structure. EI-MS of the dimethyl
disulfide derivatives of the long chain bases and glucosphingoside-heptaacetates
was decisive for the determination of the double bond position on the long chain

PMID: 8043167 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

152: Mol Phylogenet Evol  1994 Mar;3(1):27-37 

Molecular phylogeny of families related to Celastrales based on rbcL 5' flanking

Savolainen V, Manen JF, Douzery E, Spichiger R.

Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Geneva, Switzerland.

The region between the rbcL and atpB chloroplast genes and the first 53 codons
of the rbcL gene have been sequenced for 19 species of angiosperms. Nine of
these belong to the four largest families within the order Celastrales sensu
Cronquist (i.e., Aquifoliaceae s.l., Icacinaceae, Celastraceae, and
Hippocrateaceae). Both phenetic and cladistic approaches were used to test the
monophyly of the order and to specify its relationships with Euphorbiaceae,
Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceaea. Based upon this molecular analysis, the
order Celastrales is polyphyletic and is divided into two major clades. The
first group, containing Aquifoliaceae s.l. and Icacina, is related to Camellia
(Theaceae). The second, containing Euonymus (Celastraceae), Hippocratea, and
Salacia (Hippocrateaceae), is related to Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae).

PMID: 8025727 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

153: Biomed Environ Sci  1994 Mar;7(1):50-5 

Screening of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen expression inducers from Chinese
medicinal herbs and plants.

Zeng Y, Zhong JM, Ye SQ, Ni ZY, Miao XQ, Mo YK, Li ZL.

Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Beijing.

Ether extracts of 1693 Chinese medicinal herbs and plants from 268 families were
studied for the induction of Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) early antigen (EA)
expression in the Raji cell line. Fifty-two from 18 families were found to have
inducing activity. Twenty-five and seven of them were from Euphorbiaceae and
Thymelaeaeeae, respectively. Some of them, such as Croton tiglium, Euphorbia
kansui, Daphne genkwa, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Wikstroemia indica, Prunus
mandshurica Koehne and Achyranthes bidentata are commonly used drugs. The
significance of these herbs in the activation of EBV in vivo and their relation
to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were discussed.

PMID: 8024719 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

154: Life Sci  1994;55(5):389-97 

Resiniferatoxin and piperine: capsaicin-like stimulators of oxygen uptake in the
perfused rat hindlimb.

Eldershaw TP, Colquhoun EQ, Bennett KL, Dora KA, Clark MG.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

The naturally occurring capsaicin-like molecules, resiniferatoxin (RTX,
Euphorbia spp.) and piperine (Piper nigrum), each stimulated oxygen uptake (VO2)
in association with increased vascular resistance in a concentration-dependent
manner when infused into the perfused rat hindlimb. 5 microM glyceryl trinitrate
(GTN, a nitrovasodilator) significantly blocked the oxygen and pressure
responses to both RTX and piperine, indicating a close relationship between
changes in VO2 and the vasoconstriction. Concentrations greater than those
required for maximal VO2 resulted in an inhibition of VO2, although perfusion
pressure continued to increase. Time course studies showed that both RTX and
piperine at high doses resulted in a tri-phasic response. An initial phase of
transient VO2 stimulation was followed by a second phase of inhibition. A third
phase involving an often larger but transient stimulation of VO2 followed
removal of the agents and continued after the pressure returned to basal. The
actions of RTX and piperine were similar to those of other active capsaicin-like
molecules tested previously in this system, including capsaicinoids (Capsicum
spp.), gingerols (Zingiber officinale), and shogoals (Zingiber officinale). RTX
was the most potent, and piperine the least potent of this series. Although
receptor involvement has yet to be unequivocally established, the data are
consistent with the presence of a functional capsaicin-like (vanilloid) receptor
in the vasculature of the rat hindlimb that mediates vasoconstriction and oxygen
uptake. These findings may have implications for the future development of
thermogenic agents.

PMID: 8035653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

155: Eye  1994;8 ( Pt 6):696-8 

Euphorbia lathyris latex keratoconjunctivitis.

Antcliff RJ, Hodgkins PR, Bowman R, Keast-Butler J.

Publication Types:

PMID: 7867833 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

156: Eye  1994;8 ( Pt 6):694-6 

Acute kerato-uveitis associated with topical self-administration of the sap of
the Petty Spurge (Euphorbia peplus)

Eke T.

Publication Types:

PMID: 7867832 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

157: Biochem Biophys Res Commun  1993 Dec 15;197(2):778-84 

Regio- and stereoselectivity of cytochrome P-450 and peroxygenase-dependent
formation of cis-12,13-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (vernolic acid) in Euphorbia

Blee E, Stahl U, Schuber F, Stymne S.

Institut de Biologie Moleculaire des Plantes (CNRS UPR 406), DECM, Strasbourg,

Two oxygenases associated with microsomes prepared from Euphorbia lagascae
developing seeds were found to convert linoleic acid into
cis-12,13-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (vernolate): a cytochrome P-450 and a
peroxygenase. The cytochrome P-450 dependent epoxidation is characterized by a
remarkable regio- and enantioselectivity, i.e. only the 12(S),13(R)-enantiomer
is formed in the endosperm. In germinating seeds, peroxygenase was active but no
cytochrome P-450 epoxidase could be detected. Moreover, because of the very high
enantioselectivity of the fatty acid epoxide hydrolase, which is also found in
these tissues and which preferentially hydrates the 12(R),13(S)-epoxide
enantiomer, 12(S),13(R)-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid is the only isomer which
can accumulate in E. lagascae.

PMID: 8267615 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

158: Physiol Behav  1993 Dec;54(6):1191-4 

Feeding behavior of grazing ruminants experiencing stress.

Kronberg SL, Walker JW, Fitzgerald JA.

USDA-ARS, U.S. Sheep Experimental Station, Dubois, ID 84323.

The mechanisms underlying diet selection of ruminants are less studied than
those for monogastrics. However, recent studies have shown that these mechanisms
may be more similar in ruminants and monogastrics than previously believed. Food
aversion learning is observed in both monogastrics and ruminants, and the
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis appears to be involved in avoidance
learning. Using leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), an introduced weed whose
expansion has costly ecological and economic implications in western North
America, as a model for underconsumed plant species, we hypothesized that sheep
experience increased cortisol levels when they first consume leafy spurge and
that this may be related to their reluctance to graze it. We also hypothesized
that preexposure to leafy spurge would attenuate the development of a
spurge-based aversion. Correspondingly, we hypothesized that preexposed sheep
would not experience increased blood cortisol levels with leafy spurge gavage
during an aversion trial. None of our hypotheses were disproved by the
experiments. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that stress is required
for the development of conditioned taste aversions and extend it to ruminants.
We suggest that activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is integral
to food aversion learning in ruminants.

PMID: 8295963 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

159: Br J Cancer  1993 Dec;68(6):1232-5 

Are plant factors a missing link in the evolution of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma?

van den Bosch C, Griffin BE, Kazembe P, Dziweni C, Kadzamira L.

Department of Virology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital,
London, UK.

Burkitt's lymphoma, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated non-Hodgkin's
malignant lymphoma is endemic in an area of Africa known as the Lymphoma Belt.
This zone is demarcated by climatic requirements of temperature and rainfall.
EBV-activating plant factors are among several co-factors which have been
proposed for the development of epidemic Burkitt's Lymphoma (eBL). The
distribution of Euphorbia tirucalli, a plant which possesses EBV-activating
substances and can induce the characteristic 8:14 translocation of eBL in
EBV-infected lymphoblastic cell lines in vitro, conforms closely to the climatic
requirements of the Lymphoma. This plant, other EBV-activating plants and plants
of unknown EBV-activating status with medicinal uses, are found significantly
more often at the homes of eBL patients in Malawi than in those of controls. The
possible role of these plant factors in the pathogenesis of eBL and their routes
of bodily access are discussed. It is postulated that the associations described
in this paper provide support for the theory that EBV-activating plants are
co-factors involved in the pathogenesis of some cases of eBL.

PMID: 8260378 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

160: Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi  1993 Dec;13(12):730-2, 709 

[Treatment of upper respiratory infection with mixt. 716 compound]

[Article in Chinese]

Luo H.

Jiangxi Children's Hospital, Nanchang.

Mixt. 716 is composed of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, including
Oldenlandia diffusa, Euphorbia humifusa, Onychium japonicum, Acalypha australis.
150 cases of upper respiratory infection were divided into 716 treatment group
(89 cases) and control group (61 cases) randomly. The effective rate was 92% in
treatment group compared with 67% in control group. Experimental studies also
showed that Mixt. 716 was slightly cytotoxic, it could obviously inhibit
influenza virus A.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 8136647 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

161: Planta Med  1993 Oct;59(5):472-3 

Biologically active compounds from the Euphorbiaceae; Part 1. Triterpenoids of
Euphorbia nicaeensis subsp. glareosa.

Oksuz S, Shieh HL, Pezzuto JM, Ozhatay N, Cordell GA.

Publication Types:

PMID: 8255939 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

162: Biochim Biophys Acta  1993 Aug 20;1158(1):33-9 

Purification and partial characterization of a mitogenic lectin from the latex
of Euphorbia marginata.

Stirpe F, Licastro F, Morini MC, Parente A, Savino G, Abbondanza A, Bolognesi A,
Falasca AI, Rossi CA.

Dipartimento di Patologia sperimentale, Universita di Bologna, Italy.

A lectin was purified from the latex of Euphorbia marginata by affinity
chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose 6B and elution with lactose. The lectin
is a glycoprotein composed of two identical subunits with M(r) 30,000, approx.
The haemagglutinating activity of the lectin is not specific for any human blood
group, and is inhibited by galactose and galactose-containing sugars and by
gentiobiose. The lectin is strongly mitogenic for human T-lymphocytes and
induces the release of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha from
cultured mononuclear cells.

PMID: 8353129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

163: Planta Med  1993 Aug;59(4):333-6 

Antidiarrhoeic activity of Euphorbia hirta extract and isolation of an active
flavonoid constituent.

Galvez J, Zarzuelo A, Crespo ME, Lorente MD, Ocete MA, Jimenez J.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Granada,

The antidiarrhoeic activity of the Euphorbia hirta whole plant was investigated.
The lyophilized decoction demonstrated antidiarrhoeic activity in experimental
models of diarrhoea induced by castor oil, arachidonic acid, and prostaglandin
E2. It showed no activity when magnesium sulphate was used to provoke the
diarrhoea. The lyophilized decoction delayed small intestinal transit when this
was accelerated by castor oil but not in normal conditions. A flavonoid,
quercitrin, with antidiarrhoeic activity was isolated from this crude drug.

PMID: 8372151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

164: J Ethnopharmacol  1993 Aug;39(3):209-12 

A skin irritant principle from Euphorbia matabelensis Pax.

Gundidza M, Sorg B, Hecker E.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.

A diterpene of the ingenane-type parent alcohol with tetradecanoic acid as the
acid substituent was isolated by chromatographic methods from the latex of
Euphorbia matabelensis. The ingenol ester exhibited irritant activity on the
mouse ear.

PMID: 8258979 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

165: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1993 Aug;18(8):458-9, 509 

[Determination of esculetin in semen Euphorbiae lathyridis L. by TLCS and
comparison on the quality in different areas]

[Article in Chinese]

Li ZG, Sun XG, Zhou KF, Lei LC, Zhai YJ.

Henan Institute for Drug Control, Zhengzhou.

A TLC-densitometric method for the determination of oesculetin in Semen
Euphorbia lathyridis (Euphorbiae lathyrdis) was established, and esculetin
content in Semen Euphorbia lathyridis from three different producing areas
(Zhengzhou, Chengdu and Chongqing) was determined. The method is accurate,
sensitive and simple. The recovery is 98.63% and the coefficient of variation is
1.59% (n = 5). The esculetin average contents in the three samples are 0.3013%,
0.2046% and 0.2094% respectively.

PMID: 8011091 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

166: Arch Biochem Biophys  1993 May 15;303(1):145-51 

Biosynthesis of vernoleate (cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoate) in microsomal
preparations from developing endosperm of Euphorbia lagascae.

Bafor M, Smith MA, Jonsson L, Stobart K, Stymne S.

Department of Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,

Epoxidated fatty acids are the major constituents of the triacylglycerols in a
few plant species. We have investigated the biosynthesis of vernolic acid
(cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid) in the seed oil of Euphorbia lagascae.
Microsomes were isolated from developing endosperm. The membrane lipids were
labeled in situ with [14C]oleate or [14C]linoleate, which mainly were recovered
in phosphatidylcholine (PC), and the metabolization of the radioactive fatty
acids was followed in incubations with or without NADPH. In the presence of
NADPH, [14C]vernoleate was formed. After short incubations, most of the vernolic
acid was found in PC, but with increasing incubation times, the free acid
dominated. The synthesis of vernoleate was inhibited by carbon monoxide, but not
by cyanide. The presence of anticytochrome b5 antibodies inhibited both the
desaturation of [14C]oleate to [14C]linoleate and the epoxidation of
[14C]linoleate to [14C]vernoleate. Free linoleic acid did not serve as substrate
for epoxidation. The results indicate that, in the endosperm of E. lagascae,
vernoleate is synthesized on PC from linoleate, and that the epoxidation is
catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 and involves cytochrome b5.

PMID: 8489257 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

167: Biotech Histochem  1993 May;68(3):159-60 

A soap technique for cell separation to study the seed coat of Sesbania punicea.

Bevilacqua L, Massa G, Modenesi P, Fossati F.

Hanbury Institute of Botany, University of Genoa, Italy.

A technique is described for separating plant cells used for morphological
studies. The plant material is placed in a concentrated solution of olive oil
castile soap for 1-2 days or more. The material is then thoroughly washed and
placed between two glass slides. The upper glass slide is lifted from the lower
one, then gently pressed down several times. Through this procedure Malpighian
cells of the seed coat of Sesbania punicea, mesophyll cells of Euphorbia peplus
and of Trifolium pratense and cortical cells of the aerial roots of Monstera
deliciosa have been separated. Various shapes of the Malpighian cells of the
Sesbania punicea seed coat can be observed along with intermediates.

PMID: 7687883 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

168: Cent Afr J Med  1993 Mar;39(3):56-60 

Skin irritant and tumour promoting extract from the latex of Euphorbia bougheii.

Gundidza M, Kufa A.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Mount
Pleasant, Harare.

A crude ethylacetate extract was isolated from Euphorbia bougheii by a
combination of solvent-solvent and chromatographic methods. The extract
exhibited significant skin irritant activity on the mouse ear as well as a
tumour promoting activity on the mouse back skin. This indicates that the use of
this plant as a medicine must be discouraged since the latex extract causes

PMID: 8306385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

169: Ophthalmologe  1993 Feb;90(1):58-61 

[Eye burns caused by wolf's milk]

[Article in German]

Frohn A, Frohn C, Steuhl KP, Thiel HJ.

Universitats-Augenklinik Tubingen.

If the sap of Euphorbia inadvertently gets in the eye, it can cause
conjunctivitis, keratitis or iritis. Therapy consists of rinsing, antibiotics,
steroids and mydriatics when the anterior chamber is inflamed. It may also be
necessary to protect the damaged eye from light, because photoallergic reactions
are possible.

PMID: 8443451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

170: J Pharm Pharmacol  1993 Feb;45(2):157-9 

Antidiarrhoeic activity of quercitrin in mice and rats.

Galvez J, Crespo ME, Jimenez J, Suarez A, Zarzuelo A.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Spain.

Quercitrin, a flavonoid isolated from Euphorbia hirta, shows antidiarrhoeic
activity at doses of 50 mg kg-1, against castor oil- and PGE2-induced diarrhoea
in mice, but not when magnesium sulphate is used as a cathartic agent. It also
delays rat small intestinal transit if this is accelerated with castor oil.
However, the flavonoid does not modify the fluid transport across the colonic
mucosa when it is administered intraluminally, either in normal conditions or
when this transport is altered by PGE2 or sodium picosulphate. However,
quercetin, the aglycone of quercitrin, increases the colonic fluid absorption
only in the presence of secretagogue compounds, such as PGE2 and sodium
picosulphate. It is concluded that the antidiarrhoeic activity of quercitrin is
due to its aglycone, quercetin, which is released by the glycoside in the

PMID: 8095537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

171: Acta Biol Hung  1993;44(4):433-43 

Functional connection between intracellular and extracellular secretion in
species of Euphorbia genus.

Toth-Soma LT, Gulyas S, Szegletes Z.

Department of Botany, Jozsef Attila University, Szeged, Hungary.

In species of the Euphorbia genus the intracellular latex-secretion and the
extracellular nectar-secretion are anatomically connected. The functional
connection of the secretional systems was proved to be probable by TLC and
GC-MSD. The chemical composition of Euphorbia latex and honey was examined with
these analytical methods. In our research, the comparative chemical analysis of
the latex and the honey of two Euphorbia species (Euphorbia cyparissias L.,
Euphorbia seguieriana Necker.) was discharged. These species are unusually good
melliferous plants in Hungary. Four chemical components that can be found both
in the latex and in the honey were detected with ultraviolet light (254 nm), and
three general alkaloid reagents (Dragendorff, Meyer and 1% Ce(SO4)2 in 2n H2SO4)
were detected by TLC. By means of mass spectrum generated by GC-MSD, the
following compounds of Euphorbia honey were identified: butyl-2-methylpropyl
phtalat, hexadecane acid, diheptyl phtalat, bis (2-ethyl-hexyl) phtalat,
benzenedicarboxylic acid decyl-hexyl ester, benzenedicarboxylic acid
isodecyl-octyl ester. The first compounds can also be found in the latex of both
examined Euphorbia species. This partial correspondence in the composition of
the latex and the honey led to results that suggest a further, functional
connection between the two, anatomically connected secretional systems.

PMID: 7871930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

172: Cent Afr J Med  1992 Dec;38(12):444-7 

A skin irritant phorbol ester from Euphorbia cooperi N E Br.

Gundidza M, Sorg B, Hecker E.

Department of Pharmacy University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare.

From the fresh latex of Euphorbia cooperi N E Br was isolated by partition and
chromatographic methods, a diterpene ester
12-deoxyphorbol-16-isobutyrate-13-tigliate. The phorbol ester exhibited highly
irritant activity on the mouse ear. Since skin irritancy is an indication of
possible tumour promotion, the use of this plant as a medicine should be

PMID: 1340794 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

173: Mol Biochem Parasitol  1992 Sep;54(2):185-99 

Characterization of carbohydrate metabolism and demonstration of glycosomes in a
Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias.

Sanchez-Moreno M, Lasztity D, Coppens I, Opperdoes FR.

Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, International Institute of Cellular and
Molecular Pathology, Brussels, Belgium.

Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias was adapted to SDM-79 medium.
Cells isolated in the early stationary phase of growth were analyzed for their
capacity to utilize plant carbohydrates for their energy requirements. The
cellulose-degrading enzymes amylase, amylomaltase, invertase,
carboxymethylcellulase, and the pectin-degrading enzymes polygalacturonase and
oligo-D-galactosiduronate lyase were present in Phytomonas sp. and were all,
except for amylomaltase, excreted into the external medium. Glucose, fructose
and mannose served as the major energy substrates. Catabolism of carbohydrates
occurred mainly via aerobic glycolysis according to the Embden-Meyerhof pathway,
of which all the enzymes were detected. Likewise, the end-products of
glycolysis, acetate and pyruvate, glycerol, succinate and ethanol were detected
in the culture medium, as were the enzymes responsible for their production.
Mitochondria were incapable of oxidizing succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, pyruvate,
malate and proline, but had a high capacity to oxidize glycerol 3-phosphate.
This oxidation was completely inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid. No
cytochromes could be detected either in intact mitochondria or in
sub-mitochondrial particles. Mitochondrial respiration was not inhibited by
antimycin, azide or cyanide. The glycolytic enzymes, from hexokinase to
phosphoglycerate kinase, and the enzymes glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate
dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, malate dehydrogenase and
adenylate kinase, were all associated with glycosomes that had a buoyant density
of about 1.24 g cm-1 in sucrose. Cytochemical staining revealed the presence of
catalase in these organelles. The cytosolic enzyme pyruvate kinase was activated
by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, typical of all other pyruvate kinases from
Kinetoplastida. The energy metabolism of the plant parasite Phytomonas sp.
isolated from E. characias resembled that of the bloodstream form of the
mammalian parasite Trypanosoma brucei.

PMID: 1435859 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

174: Planta Med  1992 Jun;58(3):255-8 

Stimulatory effects of ingenols from Euphorbia kansui on the expression of
macrophage Fc receptor.

Matsumoto T, Cyong JC, Yamada H.

Oriental Medicine Research Center, Kitasato Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

Immune complex binding to macrophages was enhanced by treatment with an E.
kansui extract. Systematic fractionation of the extract led to the
characterization of 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)- and 3-O-(2,3-dimethylbutyryl)-13-
O-n-dodecanoyl-13-hydroxyingenol as the active principles. Immune complex
binding to macrophages by the action of these compounds increased in a
dose-dependent manner. When each ingenol (10 nM) was added to the separated
culture medium, the immune complex binding ability of macrophages increased up
to 2-fold, respectively. Scatchard analysis showed the enhanced expression of
the Fc-receptor for gamma-globulin by the action of each ingenol to macrophages.
This Fc-receptor upregulation was dependent on RNA synthesis, suggesting a
possible de novo synthesis.

PMID: 1409980 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

175: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo  1992 May-Jun;34(3):183-91 

Evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal
property of Euphorbia splendens latex.

Schall VT, de Vasconcellos MC, Villaca-Coelho AL, Ferreira-Lopes FE, da Silva

Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro,

Laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii
latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscacidal principle, with
LD90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring), 1.02 ppm (fall), 1.09 ppm (winter), and 1.07
ppm (summer) that have been determined against Biomphalaria tenagophila in the
field. Assays on latex collected in Belo Horizonte and Recife yielded LD90
values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in Rio
de Janeiro (Ilha do Governador), demonstrating geographic stability of the
molluscacidal effect. The molluscacidal action of aqueous dilutions of the latex
in natura, centrifuged (precipitate) and lyophilized, was stable for up to 124
days at room temperature (in natura) and for up to 736 days in a common
refrigerator at 10 to 12 degrees C (lyophilized product). A 5.0 ppm solution is
100% lethal for snails up to 13 days after preparation, the effect being
gradually lost to almost total inactivity by the 30th day. This observation
indicated that the active principle is instable. These properties together with
the wide distribution of the plant, its resistance and adaptation to the
tropical climate, its easy cultivation and the easy obtention of latex and
preparation of the molluscicidal solution, make this a promising material for
large-scale use in the control of schistosomiasis.

PMID: 1342068 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

176: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1992 Apr;17(4):225-6, 255-6 

[Constituents of tannins from Euphorbia prostrata Ait.]

[Article in Chinese]

Chen L, Chen R, Wei K.

Fujian Institute of TCM, Fuzhou.

Ten compounds have been isolated from Euphorbia prostrata and identified as
gallic acid, corilagin, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose,geraniin,tellimagradin I,
II, rugosin A, rugosin E, rugosin D and rugosin G on the basis of
physicochemical and spectroscopic methods.

PMID: 1418550 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

177: Lancet  1992 Feb 15;339(8790):434 

Comment on:
 Lancet. 1991 May 18;337(8751):1190.

Euphorbia species.

Abdalla SH.

Publication Types:

PMID: 1346699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

178: C R Acad Sci III  1992;314(8):337-42 

[Purification of lipase from latex of Euphorbia characias by an extraction
method with apolar solvent]

[Article in French]

Moulin A, Giordani R, Teissere M, Pieroni G.

Centre de Biochimie et de Biologie moleculaire, C.N.R.S., Marseille.

A lipase from the latex of Euphorbia characias was purified using a new method
involving extraction by apolar solvent and adsorption chromatography on silica.
The lipase (specific activity 1,500 IU/mg of protein) was eluted from silica
complexed with a lipid. The main proteic fraction, showing a molecular weight of
38,000, was inactive when dissociated from the lipid fraction. It was necessary
to reassociate the lipid and proteic fractions for 72% of the lipolytic activity
to be recovered.

PMID: 1617480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

179: Yao Xue Xue Bao  1992;27(6):445-51 

[Triterpene constituents from Euphorbia nematocypha Hand-Mazz]

[Article in Chinese]

Cao D, Su YL, Yang JS.

Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.

Seven triterpenoids have been isolated from the roots of Euphorbia nematocypha
Hand-Mazz. through chromatography on 20% AgNO3-silica gel. One of them was
identified as a new compound named nematocyphol on the basis of spectral data
(IR, EIMS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). Its structure was deduced as IVa. Other
compounds were identified as nepehinol acetate (I), germanicol acetate (II),
euphol (III), tanaxastanol (Va), 24-methylenecycloartanol (VIa) and nepehinol
(VIIa). These compounds were obtained for the first time from this plant.

PMID: 1442072 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

180: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1992 Jan-Mar;87(1):21-3 

Evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii
(N. E. B.) (Euphorbiaceae)--1. Experimental test in a lentic habitat.

Mendes NM, Baptista DF, de Vasconcellos MC, Schall VT.

Centro de Pesquisas Rene Rachou-FIOCRUZ, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii, at concentrations between 5 to
12 mg/l, kills 100% of the population of Biomphalaria glabrata in a lentic
habitat, after 24 h. The lyophilized latex, stocked for 18 months, killed only
34.2% of the snails, at the concentration of 5 mg/l, and 96.0% at 12 mg/l. No
lethal effect was observed among Pomacea haustrum exposed to the same
concentrations of the molluscicide.

PMID: 1308551 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

181: Planta Med  1991 Dec;57(6):531-5 

Activity on the CNS of crude extracts and of some diterpenoids isolated from
Euphorbia calyptrata suspended cultures.

Speroni E, Coletti B, Minghetti A, Perellino NC, Guicciardi A, Vincieri FF.

Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bologna, Italy.

Crude methanolic extracts from both root and cell cultures of Euphorbia
calyptrata were investigated and found to be active on the CNS. An active
fraction was isolated from the methanolic extract of suspension cultures; this
possesses significant depressant activity on the CNS. When compared with the
crude methanolic root extract, this fraction showed the presence of some common
products, four of which were isolated and characterized as helioscopinolides A,
C, D, and E. The pure products, administered intraperitoneally to mice, showed
different activities on the CNS. Helioscopinolide C showed a clear depressant
activity, helioscopinolide E a mild, short depressant effect, while
helioscopinolides A and D had an opposite excitatory effect.

PMID: 1818344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

182: J Ethnopharmacol  1991 Sep;34(2-3):235-46 

Use of an Amoeba proteus model for in vitro cytotoxicity testing in
phytochemical research. Application to Euphorbia hirta extracts.

Duez P, Livaditis A, Guissou PI, Sawadogo M, Hanocq M.

Unite de Chimie Bioanalytique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.

Amoeba proteus is proposed as a low-cost multi-purpose biochemical tool for
screening and standardizing cytotoxic plant extracts with possible application
in the laboratories of developing countries. Advantages and limitations of this
test are examined and different mathematical treatments (probit analysis versus
curve fitting to Von Bertalanffy and Hill functions) are investigated. Known
anti-cancer (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dacarbazine, 5-fluorouracil) and
antiparasitic (emetine, dehydroemetine, metronidazole, cucurbitine, chloroquine)
drugs were tested using this method and only metronidazole appeared inactive.
Application of this model to Euphorbia hirta established that a 100 degrees C
aqueous extraction of fresh aerial parts allows efficient extraction of active
constituents and that drying the plant material before extraction considerably
reduces activity.

PMID: 1686625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

183: Planta Med  1991 Jun;57(3):225-31 

Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties of Euphorbia hirta.

Lanhers MC, Fleurentin J, Dorfman P, Mortier F, Pelt JM.

Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Universite de Metz, France.

Lyophilised aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been
evaluated for analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties in mice
and rats, in order to complete its activity profile, after the confirmation of
the existence of a central depressant activity particularly expressed by a
strong sedative effect, associated with anxiolytic effects. This study leads us
to the conclusion that this plant extract exerts central analgesic properties.
Such a dose-dependent action was obtained against chemical (writhing test) and
thermic (hot plate test) stimuli, respectively, from the doses of 20 and 25
mg/kg and it was inhibited by a naloxone pretreatment, a specific morphinic
antagonist compound. An antipyretic activity was obtained at the sedative doses
of 100 and 400 mg/kg, on the yeast-induced hyperthermia. Finally, significant
and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were observed on an acute
inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats) from the dose of
100 mg/kg. On the other hand, plant extract remained inactive on chronic
processes such as Freund's adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis, after a
chronic treatment during fourteen days at the daily dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg;
however, if inefficacy was observed on rat backpaws edema and on loss of weight,
the aqueous extract reduced the inflammatory hyperalgia.

PMID: 1896520 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

184: Lancet  1991 May 18;337(8751):1190 

Comment in:
 Lancet. 1992 Feb 15;339(8790):434.

Chromosome translocation and c-MYC activation by Epstein-Barr virus and
Euphorbia tirucalli in B lymphocytes.

Aya T, Kinoshita T, Imai S, Koizumi S, Mizuno F, Osato T, Satoh C, Oikawa T,
Kuzumaki N, Ohigashi H, et al.

Department of Virology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Dual exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and purified 4-deoxyphorbol ester derived
from the plant Euphorbia tirucalli induced a high frequency of chromosomal
rearrangements in human B lymphocytes in vitro. Rearrangements most commonly
affected chromosome 8, the chromosome most often showing structural changes in
Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells. E tirucalli is indigenous in parts of Africa
where BL is endemic and may be an important risk factor for the disease.

PMID: 1673740 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

185: J Nat Prod  1991 May-Jun;54(3):823-9 

Antitumor agents, 119. Kansuiphorins A and B, two novel antileukemic diterpene
esters from Euphorbia kansui.

Wu TS, Lin YM, Haruna M, Pan DJ, Shingu T, Chen YP, Hsu HY, Nakano T, Lee KH.

Natural Products Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill 27599.

The extract of the roots of Euphorbia kansui, which has been widely used in
Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cancer, demonstrated antileukemic
activity against the P-388 lymphocytic leukemia in mice. Bioassay-directed
fractionation of the active extract led to the isolation and characterization of
two novel antileukemic diterpene esters, kansuiphorin A [1]
[13-hydroxyingenol-3-(2,3-dimethylbutanoate)-13-dodecanoate- 20- hexadecanoate]
and kansuiphorin B [2]
[6,7-epoxy-13-hydroxyingenol-3-(2,3-dimethylbutanoate)-13-do decanoate-20-
hexadecanoate], whose structures were established from spectral evidence and
chemical transformation. Kansuiphorins A and B demonstrated potent antileukemic
activity with T/C greater than or equal to 176 and 177% at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg,
respectively. The selectivity of kansuiphorin A, which inhibits the growth of
particular cell types within the disease-oriented human cancer cell line panels,
is discussed.

PMID: 1955882 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

186: Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi  1991 Feb;11(2):79-82, 67 

[Clinical and experimental study on the treatment of children diarrhea by
granule of children-diarrhea fast-stopping]

[Article in Chinese]

Li YL.

Henan College of TCM, Zhengzhou.

Granule of children-diarrhea fast-stopping is a proved recipe composed of seven
medical herbs such as Poria cocos, haw charcoal, Euphorbia humifusa, etc. After
more 20 years' clinical application of 419 cases, the total effective rate
proved to be 96.4% and the cure rate 90%, much better than the control groups
[TCM: gelian san and shenglingbaizhu san; WM: gentamycin and PPA]. It had the
effect of fast-stopping diarrhea and shortening the recovery period. It also had
excellent curative effect for acute and chronic diarrhea, for noninfective and
infective diarrhea with virus or germs, and for the diarrhea due to moist heat
and spleen weakness in TCM. Clinical tests and experiments showed that this
medicine had no toxic or side effects. The diarrhea-cure mechanisms were (1)
Inhibiting germs so as to eliminate pathogeny. (2) Adjusting and improving
organism immunity function. (3) Accelerating the recovery of intestinal
digestion and absorption functions. (4) Inhibiting intestinal movement.

PMID: 2060055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

187: Contact Dermatitis  1991 Feb;24(2):155-6 

Irritant contact dermatitis from Euphorbia marginata.

Urushibata O, Kase K.

Department of Dermatology, Ohashi Hospital, Toho University School of Medicine,
Tokyo, Japan.

PMID: 1828219 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

188: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1991 Jan;16(1):38-9, 64 

[Polyphenols from leaves of Euphorbia hirta L.]

[Article in Chinese]

Chen L.

Fujian Institute of TCM, Fuzhou.

Six compounds have been isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta and
identified as gallic acid, quercitrin, myricitriu, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid,
2,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose and 1,2,3,4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose on
the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods.

PMID: 2069701 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

189: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1991;86 Suppl 2:87-8 

Toxicological study of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens: irritant
action on skin and eye.

Freitas JC, Presgrave OA, Fingola FF, Menezes MA, Vasconcellos MC, Schall VT,
Paumgartten FJ.

Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saude, Departamento de
Farmacologia e Toxicologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

Aqueous solutions of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens are irritant
to the rabbit eye in concentrations higher than 0.35% and to the rabbit skin in
concentrations higher than 0.5%. Although this irritant potential does not
preclude its use as a molluscicide, special precautions are recommended for
handling and application of the product and the hazard of skin tumor-promoting
potential should be carefully investigated before its use for schistosomiasis
vector control.

PMID: 1842019 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

190: Braz J Med Biol Res  1991;24(6):573-82 

Evaluation of the genotoxic activity and acute toxicity of Euphorbia splendens
latex, a molluscicide for the control of schistosomiasis.

Schall VT, Vasconcellos MC, Valent GU, Sato MI, Furlan EV, Sanchez PS.

Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro,

1. The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii has a molluscicidal action at
low concentration (LD90 less than 1.5 ppm or 1.5 micrograms/ml) against the
vector snails of schistosomiasis. 2. In the present study, the latex in natura
or after lyophilization was submitted to the Ames test and the chromotest to
evaluate genotoxicity, to the Microtox System to determine acute toxicity, and
to the Chinese hamster ovary cell assay (CHO) to measure cytotoxicity. 3. The
latex had no mutagenic activity in the presence or absence of S9 toward the TA98
and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test) at concentrations up to
200 microliters/plate (in natura) and of 200 micrograms/plate (lyophilized). The
lyophilized latex had no genotoxic activity (Chromotest) and no acute toxic
effect on Photobacterium phosphoreum at concentrations up to 445 micrograms/ml,
whereas the sample in natura had a toxic effect with an EC50 of 148,000
microliters/l (or ppm). In the CHO/cytotoxicity assay, the lyophilized latex had
no cytotoxic effect in quantities up to 200 micrograms. 4. The latex was found
to have no acute toxicity or mutagenic activity at the concentrations of 10 to
12 micrograms/ml (or ppm) that are being proposed for molluscicidal use in the

PMID: 1823273 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

191: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo)  1990 Aug;38(8):2201-3 

Hepatoprotective compounds from Canarium album and Euphorbia nematocypha.

Ito M, Shimura H, Watanabe N, Tamai M, Hanada K, Takahashi A, Tanaka Y, Arai K,
Zhang PL, Chang R, et al.

Research Center, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Saitama, Japan.

Successive purification of the extract from Canarium album and Euphorbia
nematocypha, guided by antihepatotoxic activity in primary cultured rat
hepatocytes, led to the isolation of brevifolin (1), hyperin (2), ellagic acid
(3) and 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (4) as hepatoprotective compounds.
Compounds 1,3 and 4 also reduced carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver
damage in mice. The hepatoprotective activities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 in vitro and in
vivo are apparently due to their antioxidative effects, which were exhibited by
further studies using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and
CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation systems.

PMID: 2279282 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

192: J Ethnopharmacol  1990 Jul;29(3):291-4 

Topical antiinflammatory effects of Euphorbia prostrata on carrageenan-induced
footpad oedema in mice.

Singla AK, Pathak K.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

The ethyl acetate extract and a fraction, KSE-23, isolated chromatographically
from the ethyl acetate extract of Euphorbia prostrata, showed significant
antiinflammatory activity when topically applied in a murine model of
carrageenan footpad oedema. KSE-23 was found to be more potent than indomethacin
given in the same manner.

PMID: 2214815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

193: J Ethnopharmacol  1990 May;29(2):189-98 

Behavioral effects of Euphorbia hirta L.: sedative and anxiolytic properties.

Lanhers MC, Fleurentin J, Cabalion P, Rolland A, Dorfman P, Misslin R, Pelt JM.

Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Universite de Metz, France.

Lyophilised aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been
evaluated for behavioral effects in mice. The extract did not induce any toxic
effect when it was administered i.p. and orally. Sedative properties could be
confirmed with high doses (100 mg of dried plant/kg, and more), by a decrease of
behavioral parameters measured in non-familiar environment tests (activitest and
staircase test), whereas anticonflict effects appeared at lower doses (12.5 and
25 mg of dried plant/kg), by an enhancement of behavioral parameters measured in
the staircase test and in the light/dark choice situation test. These findings
validate the traditional use of E. hirta as a sedative and reveal original
anxiolytic properties.

PMID: 1973750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

194: Neuroscience  1990;37(2):531-9 

Similarities and differences in the action of resiniferatoxin and capsaicin on
central and peripheral endings of primary sensory neurons.

Maggi CA, Patacchini R, Tramontana M, Amann R, Giuliani S, Santicioli P.

Pharmacology Department, A. Menarini Pharmaceuticals, Florence, Italy.

We have compared the ability of capsaicin and resiniferatoxin, a natural
diterpene present in the latex of plants of the Euphorbia family to excite and
desensitize capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents in a variety of models. Both
capsaicin and resiniferatoxin inhibited the twitch contractions of the rat
isolated vas deferens and prevented, in a concentration-related manner, the
effect of a subsequent challenge with 1 microM capsaicin (desensitization).
Resiniferatoxin was 1000-10,000 times more potent than capsaicin in both cases.
The time course of action of resiniferatoxin was much slower than that of
capsaicin, suggesting a slower penetration rate in the tissue. The action of
resiniferatoxin was blocked by Ruthenium Red, a proposed antagonist at the
cation channel coupled to the capsaicin receptor. Both capsaicin and
resiniferatoxin produced a contraction of the rat isolated urinary bladder.
Resiniferatoxin was about as potent as capsaicin in this assay although it was
500-1000 times more potent than capsaicin in desensitizing the primary afferents
to a subsequent challenge with capsaicin itself. Resiniferatoxin did not affect
motility in the isolated vasa deferentia or urinary bladder from
capsaicin-pretreated rats. After topical application onto the rat urinary
bladder both resiniferatoxin (10 nM) and capsaicin (10 microM) increased bladder
capacity as assessed in a volume-evoked micturition reflex model in rats without
affecting micturition contraction. Intrarterial injection of resiniferatoxin or
capsaicin in the ear of anesthetized rabbits evoked a systemic depressor reflex
due to activation of paravascular nociceptors, resiniferatoxin being about three
times more potent than capsaicin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

PMID: 1723514 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

195: J Ethnopharmacol  1989 Nov;27(1-2):55-61 

Anti-inflammatory studies on Euphorbia prostrata.

Singla AK, Pathak K.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Anti-inflammatory studies were conducted in rats on an ethanol extract of whole
plant Euphorbia prostrata and its partitioned fractions. The ethyl acetate
fraction in an oral dose of 200 mg/kg, inhibited 76% of acute
carrageenan-induced paw edema. A fraction, labelled as KSE-23, isolated from the
ethyl acetate fraction inhibited 57% of pedal edema at a dose of 8 mg/kg. Acute
inflammatory studies of fractions using histamine and bradykinin-induced pedal
edema indicated a selective inhibition of histamine-induced edema, suggesting
suppression of the first phase of the acute inflammatory reaction.

PMID: 2615426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

196: Planta Med  1989 Jun;55(3):271-2 

An antitumor principle from Euphorbia lathyris.

Itokawa H, Ichihara Y, Watanabe K, Takeya K.

The extract of seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L. showed antitumor activity against
Sarcoma 180 ascites in mice. Systematic fractionation of the extract led to the
characterization of ingenol-3-hexadecanoate as an active principle, together
with an inactive diterpene ingenol-20-hexadecanoate.

PMID: 2740459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

197: Life Sci  1989;44(11):711-5 

Thermoregulatory effects of resiniferatoxin in the mouse: comparison with

de Vries DJ, Blumberg PM.

Laboratory of Cellular Carcinogenesis and Tumor Promotion, National Cancer
Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Resiniferatoxin, an extremely irritant diterpene present in several members of
the genus Euphorbia, produced an 8 C decrease in the rectal temperature of mice
with an effective dose in the range of 2-20 micrograms/kg. The structurally
related natural product capsaicin produced a similar magnitude of fall in body
temperature, albeit with 1000-fold lower potency. Tolerance to the hypothermic
effects of both compounds readily developed and cross-tolerance between the
compounds was observed. The extreme potency of resiniferatoxin should facilitate
biochemical analysis of the mechanism of action of this class of compounds.

PMID: 2927241 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

198: Neuroscience  1989;30(2):515-20 

Resiniferatoxin, a phorbol-related diterpene, acts as an ultrapotent analog of
capsaicin, the irritant constituent in red pepper.

Szallasi A, Blumberg PM.

Molecular Mechanisms of Tumor Promotion Section, National Cancer Institute,
Bethesda, MD 20892.

Resiniferatoxin is an extremely irritant diterpene present in the latex of
several members of the genus Euphorbia. Its mechanism of action has been shown
to be clearly distinct from that of the structurally related phorbol esters.
Since resiniferatoxin possesses a 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl substituent, a key
feature of capsaicin, the major pungent ingredient of plants of the genus
Capsicum, we examined the ability of resiniferatoxin to induce typical capsaicin
responses. We report here that treatment of rats with resiniferatoxin, like
treatment with capsaicin, caused hypothermia, neurogenic inflammation, and pain.
These responses were followed by loss of thermoregulation, by desensitization to
neurogenic inflammation, and by chemical and thermal analgesia, with
cross-tolerance between resiniferatoxin and capsaicin. Resiniferatoxin was 3 4
orders of magnitude more potent than capsaicin for the effects on
thermoregulation and neurogenic inflammation. Resiniferatoxin was only
comparable in potency to capsaicin, however, in the assay for induction of acute
pain, and the desensitization to acute pain appeared to require less
resiniferatoxin than did desensitization for the other responses. We conclude
that resiniferatoxin acts as an ultrapotent capsaicin analog and hypothesize
that it may distinguish between subclasses of capsaicin response.

PMID: 2747924 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

199: Cytobios  1989;59(238-239):151-8 

Comparative study of the surface charge of some isolates of trypanosomatids of
the genus Phytomonas.

Vommaro RC, Attias M, de Souza W.

Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil.

The surface charge of different isolates of Phytomonas from Euphorbia
hyssopifolia, Euphorbia pinea, Euphorbia characias and Manihot esculenta was
analysed by the binding of cationic particles (colloidal iron hydroxide at pH
1.8 and cationized ferritin at pH 7.2) to the protozoan surface and by
determination of the cell electrophoretic mobility (EPM). All the isolates had a
net negative surface charge, and the isolate from E. hyssopifolia manifested the
greatest negative charge. A good relationship between the electrophoretic
mobility data and the density of the cationic particles on the parasite's
surface, as seen in ultrathin sections, was observed. Neuraminidase treatment
did not significantly reduce the mean EPM of the parasites analysed.

PMID: 2517559 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

200: Afr J Med Med Sci  1988 Dec;17(4):227-30 

Screening extracts of Euphorbia garuana N.E.Br. for in-vitro cytotoxicity.

Abo KA.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Medicine,
University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Two biological assays utilising in-vitro uptake of 3H-thymidine into TLX/5
lymphoma and rat basophilic leukaemia cells have been used for rapid detection
and subsequent isolation of active compounds from the latex of Euphorbia garuana
(Euphorbiaceae). Two potent esters were characterized from the latex of E.
garuana reportedly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain
forms of cancer.

PMID: 2854369 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

201: J Nat Prod  1988 Nov-Dec;51(6):1062-74 

Irritant principles of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). XIII. Oligocyclic and
macrocyclic diterpene esters from latices of some Euphorbia species utilized as
source plants of honey.

Sosath S, Ott HH, Hecker E.

German Cancer Research Center, Institute of Biochemistry, Heidelberg.

The latices of the three South African species Euphorbia ledienii, Euphorbia
coerulescens, and Euphorbia triangularis, belonging to a group of cactiform
Euphorbias locally called "Noors," were shown to contain four 12-mono- and three
13,20-diesters of the tetracyclic tigliane type parent alcohol 12-deoxyphorbol
[1]. In addition, two 13,16-di- and two 13,16,20-triesters of the related
12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol [9] were obtained. Ester groups in 1 and 9 are made
up of acetic, isobutyric, tiglic, angelic, and 2-methylbutyric acid; their
positions in the parent alcohols were identified. The free parent alcohols were
not detected in the latices. On the mouse ear all esters isolated showed
moderate irritant activity as compared to the tigliane-type standard TPA. In
addition to the oligocyclics listed above, the latex of E. ledienii also yielded
five esters of the macrocylic, lathyrane type parent alcohol ingol [14]. In the
two triesters and three teraesters the ester groups were made up of acetic,
tiglic, and 2-methylbutyric acid (positions in 14 unidentified). None of the
ingol esters showed irritant activity.

PMID: 3236005 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

202: J Biol Chem  1988 Sep 5;263(25):12373-7 

Mass spectrometric determination of the inorganic carbon species assimilated by
photoautotrophic cells of Euphorbia characias L.

Rebeille F, Gans P, Chagvardieff P, Pean M, Tapie P, Thibault P.

Department de Biologie, C.E.N. de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France.

The chemical forms of inorganic carbon, CO2 or HCO3-, incorporated during
photosynthesis in photoautotrophic Euphorbia characias cell suspension cultures
were determined in experiments using 13CO2 and a mass spectrometry technique.
From the equations of the CO2 hydration reaction, a kinetic model was first
developed, and the effect of photosynthesis on the external CO2 concentration
was simulated. It was predicted from this model that CO2 and HCO3- uptakes could
be differentiated by recording only the CO2 variation rate in the external
medium, successively in absence then in presence of an exogenous carbonic
anhydrase activity. The results obtained with either CO2-grown or air-grown
photoautotrophic cells were in good agreement with the model and demonstrated
that CO2 was the sole species taken up during photosynthesis. In addition no
accumulation of inorganic carbon within the cells was observed in the light.
Similarly, in dark, CO2 was the only species released by respiration in the
external medium.

PMID: 3137227 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

203: Zhong Yao Tong Bao  1988 May;13(5):35-6, 63 

[Isolation and identification of antitumor constituents of diterpenoids lactone
in Euphorbia fischeriana Steud]

[Article in Chinese]

Liu GF.

PMID: 3197209 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

204: Indian J Med Res  1988 Apr;87:395-7 

Antibacterial activity of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.

Khan NH, Rahman M, Nur-e-Kamal MS.

PMID: 3169896 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

205: Zhong Yao Tong Bao  1987 Aug;12(8):36-8, 64 

[Isolation and identification of the lipophilic constituents from the root of
Euphorbia fischeriana Steud.]

[Article in Chinese]

Liu GF, Yang SS, Yang ZQ.

PMID: 3442914 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

206: Lancet  1987 May 30;1(8544):1257-8 

African Burkitt's lymphoma and an Epstein-Barr virus-enhancing plant Euphorbia

Osato T, Mizuno F, Imai S, Aya T, Koizumi S, Kinoshita T, Tokuda H, Ito Y, Hirai
N, Hirota M, et al.

Publication Types:

PMID: 2884382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

207: J Nat Prod  1987 Jan-Feb;50(1):36-40 

3,3',5'-Tri-O-methylpiceatannol and 4,3',5'-tri-O-methylpiceatannol:
improvements over piceatannol in bioactivity.

Gill MT, Bajaj R, Chang CJ, Nichols DE, McLaughlin JL.

Piceatannol (3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene) (NSC 365798) has recently
been isolated and was subsequently synthesized for NCI tumor panel testing as a
new antileukemic natural product from the seeds of Euphorbia lagascae. During
the synthesis, a bioactive reaction mixture of several partially O-methylated
piceatannol analogues was obtained. This mixture has now been maximized and
subjected to bioactivity-directed fractionation, using brine shrimp lethality,
to yield 3,3',5'-tri-O-methylpiceatannol (NSC 381281); this new compound has
improved stability and better bioactivity in several systems than piceatannol
itself. To confirm the structure, 5 was synthesized from vanillin. In addition,
the isovanillin analogue, 4,3',5'-tri-O-methylpiceatannol (NSC 381864), another
new compound, was synthesized and found to be bioactive.

PMID: 3598597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

208: AIDS Res  1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S151-5 

Epstein-Barr virus-enhancing plant promoters in east Africa.

Mizuno F, Osato T, Imai S, Koizumi S, Aya T, Kinoshita T, Hirai N, Hirota M,
Ohigashi H, Koshimizu K, et al.

The extracts of a certain African plant species, Euphorbia tirucalli, were found
to have markedly enhancing effects on the activation of latent Epstein-Barr
virus (EBV) genomes in the EBV carrying lymphoblastoid cells and also on
EBV-induced transformation of human lymphocytes. The Euphorbia tirucalli was
especially noticeable in highly endemic areas of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), an
EBV-associated malignancy, in Kenya and Tanzania. The activation of the latent
EBV genome and the EBV-induced transformation enhancement were also observed
with the soil and drinking water taken around the plants, strongly indicating
that the people living in BL endemic areas are frequently exposed to such an
EBV-enhancing plant promoter substance.

PMID: 3030344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

209: Zhong Yao Tong Bao  1986 Nov;11(11):48-9 

[Mutagenic evaluation of the Chinese drug C, L, T, G pill consisting of Daphne
genkwa, Euphorbia kansui, Euphorbia pekinensis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis tested in
Salmonella typhimurium and B. subtilis]

[Article in Chinese]

Lin TG.

PMID: 2952328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

210: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1986 Oct-Dec;81(4):475-6 

Latex of "coroa de cristo" (Euphorbia splendens): an effective molluscicide.

de Vasconcellos MC, Schall VT.

An aqueous solution of the latex of "coroa de cristo" (Euphorbia splendens var.
hislopii) showed molluscicide action (LD90) at a concentration lower than 0.5
ppm on Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila reared in laboratory and at a
concentration lower than 4.0 ppm for field B. tenagophila.

PMID: 3613981 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

211: Lakartidningen  1986 Aug 20;83(34):2756 

[Euphorbia and high chapparall--hazardous pot plants in fashion]

[Article in Swedish]

Hallen L.

PMID: 3747661 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

212: Virology  1986 Jul 15;152(1):219-27 

3-Methylquercetin is a potent and selective inhibitor of poliovirus RNA

Castrillo JL, Vanden Berghe D, Carrasco L.

3-Methylquercetin (3MQ) is a natural compound isolated from Euphorbia grantii
that selectively inhibits poliovirus replication, but has no effect on
encephalomyocarditis virus. When the compound is present from the beginning of
infection, the bulk of viral protein synthesis is prevented, but the shut-off of
host protein synthesis still occurs. Addition of 3MQ 3 hr after infection has a
slight effect on viral protein synthesis, suggesting that this compound blocks a
step of viral replication different from translation. Indeed, poliovirus RNA
synthesis is potently blocked by 3MQ, i.e., 50% inhibition at 2 micrograms/ml
(6.3 X 10(-6) M). No effect on encephalomyocarditis, nor on cellular RNA
synthesis is observed even at 20 micrograms/ml. The inhibitory effect of 3MQ is
reversible, since cells treated with this compound from the beginning of
infection start to synthesize viral RNA and proteins when the compound is
removed. Strikingly, other natural compounds structurally related to
3-methylquercetin such as quercetin, naringenin, naringin, morin, catechin,
kaempferol, myricetin, phloretin, phlorizdin, and rutin do not block poliovirus

PMID: 3012868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

213: J Nat Prod  1986 May-Jun;49(3):386-97 

On the active principles of the Euphorbiaceae, XII. Highly unsaturated irritant
diterpene esters from Euphorbia tirucalli originating from Madagascar.

Furstenberger G, Hecker E.

The latex of Euphorbia tirucalli originating from Madagascar contains as
irritant constituents ingenane- and tigliane-type diterpene esters derived from
the parent alcohols ingenol and phorbol. The main irritant constituents are
isomeric 12,13-acetates, acylates of phorbol as well as 3-acylates of ingenol.
As acyl groups, they carry homologous, highly unsaturated aliphatic acids of the
general structure CH3-(CH2)m-(CH = CH)n-COOH (m = 2,4; n = 2,3,4,5; total number
N of C-atoms = 2n + m + 2). The lack of 4-deoxyphorbol esters in this latex as
compared to latex of South African origin is probably indicative of the
existence of chemical races of E. tirucalli. In the acyl moiety of phorbol
esters investigated in detail, an increasing number of C-atoms or an increasing
number of double bonds at a fixed number of C-atoms leads to an increase of
irritant activity. As compared to their saturated analogs, corresponding
unsaturated phorbol esters exhibit similar irritant activities. On the other
hand, by an increasing number of conjugated double bonds in the acyl moieties of
phorbol esters, the promoting activity is decreased, thus indicating that
irritant activity is a necessary, but insufficient, requirement for promoting
activity of phorbol esters. An assessment of a potential carcinogenic risk
involved in mass production and handling of the plant should point to the very
weak tumor-promoting activity and the chemical instability demonstrated for the
diterpene constituents in the latex and hence in all plant parts.

PMID: 3760879 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

214: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1985 Oct-Dec;80(4):423-7 

Molluscicide activity of the "avelos" plant (Euphorbia tirucalli, L.) on
Biomphalaria glabrata, the mollusc vector of schistosomiasis.

Jurberg P, Cabral Neto JB, Schall VT.

An aqueous solution of the latex of Euphorbia tirucalli collected at sites
receiving large amounts of sunlight showed molluscicide action on Biomphalaria
glabrata, with LD50 obtained at the concentration of 28,0 ppm and LD90 at the
concentration of 85,0 ppm. The toxicity of the product for fish was similar to
that of Bayluscide and of copper sulfate used for comparison. However, the wide
distribution of the plant, its easy propagation and the simple procedure for
extraction of the active substance, which is biodegradable, favor "avelos" as a
promising agent in the control of schistosomiasis.

PMID: 3939311 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

215: Z Naturforsch [C]  1985 Sep-Oct;40(9-10):631-46 

On the active principles of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). XI. [1] The skin
irritant and tumor promoting diterpene esters of Euphorbia tirucalli L.
originating from South Africa.

Furstenberger G, Hecker E.

The irritant and tumor-promoting constituents of latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L.
originating from South Africa were isolated. They were identified as irritant
ingenane and tigliane type diterpene esters derived from unsaturated aliphatic
acids and acetic acid and the polyfunctional diterpene parent alcohols
4-deoxyphorbol, phorbol and ingenol, respectively. The irritant and
tumor-promoting esters of 4-deoxyphorbol are predominant and were fully
characterized chemically and biologically. They are positionally isomeric
12,13-acylates, acetates e.g. Euphorbiafactors Ti1-Ti4. As acyl groups they
carry homologous, highly unsaturated aliphatic acids of the general structure
CH3-(CH2)m-(CH = CH)n-COOH (m = 2,4; n = 1,2, 3,4,5; N = 2n + m + 2).
Corresponding diesters of 4-deoxy-4 alpha-phorbol are also present which are
biologically inactive. Comparison of structures and biological activities of
12,13-diesters of 4-deoxyphorbol indicates that--for a distinct total number of
C-atoms (N) in the acyl moiety--an increasing number of conjugated double bonds
(n) may increase the irritant but decrease the tumor-promoting activity.
Replacement of the hydroxyl function at C-4 (phorbol-12,13-diesters) by hydrogen
(corresponding 4-deoxyphorbol-12,13-diesters) does not essentially alter
biological activities. Epimerization of 4-deoxyphorbol-12,13-diesters at C-4
abolishes biological activities. The specific chemical properties demonstrated
for the diterpene ester irritants contained in the latex of E. tirucalli and
hence in all plant parts may be useful in trials to abolish the potential risk
of cancer involved especially in occupational mass production and handling of
the plant. Some of the structure activity relations of the Euphorbia factors
isolated made them excellent tools in experimental cancer research for the
analysis of mechanisms of tumorigenesis.

PMID: 4082727 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

216: Contact Dermatitis  1985 Jul;13(1):44 

Irritant dermatitis due to Euphorbia marginata.

Pinedo JM, Saavedra V, Gonzalez-de-Canales F, Llamas P.

PMID: 4042646 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

217: Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd  1985 May;186(5):380-1 

[Euphorbiae keratoconjunctivitis]

[Article in German]

Rossler G.

This paper reports on 6 cases of keratoconjunctivitis caused by the latex of
Euphorbiaceae, one of them with slight systemic intoxication. Phorbolesters are
considered to be responsible for the toxicity of the latex of Euphorbiaceae,
e.g., in the case of Euphorbia helioscopia,
12-Desoxyphorbol-13-phenylacetate-2-O-acetate. Since all of the cases of
keratoconjunctivitis Euphorbiae described here, as well as the majority of those
cited in the literature, have resulted in a restitutio ad integrum, a benign
course may be expected, even in cases of keratoconjunctivitis Euphorbiae with
initially severe clinical pictures.

PMID: 4021430 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

218: Contact Dermatitis  1985 May;12(5):285-6 

Contact dermatitis from Euphorbia pulcherrima.

Santucci B, Picardo M, Cristaudo A.

PMID: 3161691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

219: Q J Exp Physiol  1984 Oct;69(4):809-18 

Function of the lower intestine and osmoregulation in the ostrich: preliminary
anatomical and physiological observations.

Skadhauge E, Warui CN, Kamau JM, Maloiy GM.

The gross anatomy of the lower intestine of the African ostrich (Struthio
camelus) was investigated in four adult birds shot in the wild. The presence of
80 cm long paired caeca, and approximately 10 m of colon between ileum and the
cloaca was confirmed. Urine, but not faeces, was found in the coprodeum.
Retrograde flow into the colon was not observed. Samples of contents from the
lower intestine were secured from these birds and the water content, osmolality
and concentrations in the supernatant of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA),
acetate, Na, K and Cl and pH were measured. In the caeca and the orad wide part
(2-3 m) of the colon an avid production of SCFA takes place since the
concentration of SCFA reached around 200 mM in these segments. As judged from a
pronounced fall in the concentrations of Na and SCFA along the length of the
colon, these ions are absorbed together with water. The water content falls from
92 to 67% (i.e. from 11.5 to 2.0 ml H2O/g dry matter). The mid-gut fermentation
of carbohydrate is in agreement with the observation that the birds were feeding
exclusively on Euphorbia heterochroma. This succulent plant (water content 87%)
apparently makes the birds independent of surface water. Laboratory studies were
performed on two captive male chicks. Hyperosmotic NaCl loading was unable to
activate the nasal glands to secretion. Their ducts passed directly from the
frontal/lacrimal bone to the nasal cavity. Dehydration confirmed a maximal
osmolality of the cloacal urine of around 800 mosmol/l, the osmotic urine to
plasma ratio being 2.5. Feeding of either a low- or a high-NaCl diet did not
affect the transepithelial electrical potential difference of the coprodeal
wall. It remained less than 5 mV, lumen negative.

PMID: 6514998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

220: Planta Med  1984 Aug;50(4):319-22 

Active principles of the Euphorbiaceae. VII. Milliamines H and I, peptide esters
of 20-deoxy-5 epsilon-hydroxyphorbol from Euphorbia milii.

Marston A, Hecker E.

PMID: 6517976 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

221: J Nat Prod  1984 Jul-Aug;47(4):702-5 

Correlation of the anticholinesterase and molluscicidal activity of the latex of
Euphorbia royleana on the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

Singh DK, Agarwal RA.

PMID: 6491683 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

222: Planta Med  1984 Jun;50(3):259-61 

Macrocyclic lathyrane type diterpene esters (jolkinols) from callus cultures and
roots of Euphorbia lathyris.

Adolf W, Hecker E, Becker H.

PMID: 6484031 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

223: Toxicol Lett  1984 Jun;21(3):309-14 

Alteration in biogenic amine levels in the snail Lymnaea acuminata by the latex
of Euphorbia royleana.

Singh DK, Agarwal RA.

The latex of Euphorbia royleana which has high molluscicidal and
anti-cholinesterase activity against Lymnaea acuminata reduced the levels of
5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) and dopamine (DA) in the nervous tissue of L.
acuminata. There was, however, no significant change in the level of
5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA). The changes were found to be dependent on
concentration of the latex extract. Similar changes were produced by both water
and organic solvent extracts of the latex. The latex of E. royleana thus affects
all the known neurotransmission mechanisms in the snail either separately or
through a complex interaction between the different neurotransmitters. This may
account for its high toxicity to snails.

PMID: 6204425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

224: J Ethnopharmacol  1984 Apr;10(2):225-33 

Anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia acaulis Roxb.

Singh GB, Kaur S, Satti NK, Atal CK, Maheshweri JK.

From various extracts of Euphorbia acaulis , the n-hexane fraction showed marked
anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced oedema in rats and mice as
compared to phenylbutazone and was equipotent in adrenal- ectomised rats. In
chronic models of formaldehyde and adjuvant arthritis, its anti-arthritic
activity was found to be superior to that of phenylbutazone. It had a diuretic
effect but did not show any analgesic or antipyretic activity.

PMID: 6727400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

225: Planta Med  1984 Apr;50(2):138-42 

Effects of Euphorbia prostrata and Fumaria parviflora in normoglycaemic and
alloxan-treated hyperglycaemic rabbits.

Akhtar MS, Khan QM, Khaliq T.

PMID: 6473545 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

226: J Nat Prod  1984 Mar-Apr;47(2):347-52 

Use of potato disc and brine shrimp bioassays to detect activity and isolate
piceatannol as the antileukemic principle from the seeds of Euphorbia lagascae.

Ferrigni NR, McLaughlin JL, Powell RG, Smith CR Jr.

EtOH extracts of the seeds of Euphorbia lagascae inhibited crown gall tumors on
potato discs, were active against 3PS (in vivo) and 9PS (in vitro) mouse
leukemia, and were toxic to brine shrimp. Using the potato disc and brine shrimp
bioassays to monitor fractionation, piceatannol (3,4,3',5'- tetrahydroxystilbene
) was isolated as the 3PS active principle. Aesculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin)
was isolated in large quantity, was weakly cytotoxic in 9KB , but was inactive
in the other bioassay systems. Sucrose was also isolated. A combination of the
simple crown gall and brine shrimp bioassays can thus be used both to detect and
to isolate plant antitumor substances, minimizing the need for extensive
antitumor testing in vivo.

PMID: 6736971 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

227: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol  1984;108(1):98-109 

On the active principles of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). V. Extremely
skin-irritant and moderately tumor-promoting diterpene esters from Euphorbia
resinifera Berg.

Hergenhahn M, Kusumoto S, Hecker E.

The irritant and tumor-promoting principles were isolated from the latex of
Euphorbia resinifera Berg. and from the resin derived from latex (euphorbium),
which is commercially available as a drug. The irritant Euphorbia factors RL 5
(mixture), RL 6, RL 7, RL 8, and RL 10 were identified as tigliane-type
12-deoxyphorbol esters each bearing, in the 13 position, either long-chain,
partially methyl-substituted acyl residues (10-16 carbon atoms) or short-chain
acyl residues (4 or 5 carbon atoms) or a (substituted) phenylacetyl group with a
20-acetoxy group. Euphorbia factors RL 15 (mixture), RL 16, RL 17, RL 18, and RL
21 are the corresponding 20-deacetylated derivatives thereof. The irritant
Euphorbia factors RL 11, RL 12, RL 22, RL 23 were characterized as esters of the
tigliane type 12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol, i.e.,
13-0-phenylacetyl-16-0-benzoyl-12-deoxy16-hydroxyphorbol-20- acetate (RL 11) and
13, 16-0-phenylacetyl, tigloyl-12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-phorbol-20-acetate (RL 12),
RL 22 and RL 23 representing the respective 20-deacetylated derivatives. A
mixture of irritant factors, RL 13, was shown to represent long-chain 3-esters
of ingenane-type ingenol with similar acyl residues (10-16 carbon atoms,
partially methyl-substituted) to RL 5 (RL 15) above. A further group of E.
resinifera factors was of the daphnane type: RL 9 was identified as the
extremely irritant 9,13,14-orthophenylacetate of
resiniferonol-20-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy)phenylacetate (Resiniferatoxin), RL 14 as
the corresponding 9,13,14-orthophenylacetate of resiniferonol, and RL 20 as
14-0-phenylacetylresiniferonol-20-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy)-phenylacet ate
(Proresiniferatoxin). The irritant factors specified below were accompanied by
nonirritant esters of the tigliane type 12,20-dideoxyphorbol, i.e., RL 1 and RL
2, and of the lathyrane type ingol, i.e., RL 3 and RL 4. In tumor promotion
experiments the mixture of homologous irritant factors RL 13 was equipotent with
the standard tumor promoter TPA, but at 10 times the dose of TPA. Several others
of the irritant factors had low activity as tumor promotors, but of the few
tumors obtained in these experiments a high percentage was malignant. The very
high irritant activity of the latex may be ascribed to resiniferatoxin (RL 9),
representing a new class of rapidly acting skin irritants. No promoting activity
was detected on administration of the highly irritant resiniferatoxin.

PMID: 6746723 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

228: Neoplasma  1984;31(3):347-50 

Tumor promoting activity of Euphorbia striatella (Boiss) and skin irritant
activity of some Euphorbia species.

Upadhyay RR, Sater AM, Moinzadeh F, Bunakdari A, Sedehi F, Samin R.

Out of seven plants selected due to their use in folk medicine, five possessing
ingenol as diterpene parent, exhibited mild skin irritancy where as E.
striatella latex was highly skin irritant and produced papilloma, in
initiation-promotion experiment on mouse back skin. This tumor promoting
activity has been demonstrated due to the presence of ingenol-3-O-decanoate.

PMID: 6738758 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

229: Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi  1984 Jan;4(1):46-7 

[Antineoplastic effect of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud on mice with implanted

[Article in Chinese]

Shen TJ.

PMID: 6233041 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

230: Biochem J  1983 Dec 1;215(3):433-9 

Purification and properties of two lectins from the latex of the euphorbiaceous
plants Hura crepitans L. (sand-box tree) and Euphorbia characias L.
(Mediterranean spurge).

Barbieri L, Falasca A, Franceschi C, Licastro F, Rossi CA, Stirpe F.

1. From the latex of two members of the plant family Euphorbiaceae, Hura
crepitans L. (sand-box tree) and Euphorbia characias L. (Mediterranean spurge),
two lectins were purified by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose
6B followed by elution with D-galactose. 2. The lectin from E. characias is a
single molecular species with Mr 80 000, made up of two identical subunits with
Mr 40 000, and is a glycoprotein containing 11% carbohydrate. 3. The lectin from
H. creptians appears as a mixture of three isolectins with Mr 140 000,
consisting of four different subunits with Mr values 37 500, 35 500, 31 000, and
29 000. 4. Both lectins have haemagglutinating activity, with no specificity for
human blood groups. The haemagglutinating activity is inhibited by D-galactose
and by galactose-containing oligosaccharides. 5. The lectin from H. crepitans is
mitogenic to human T-, but not to B-, lymphocytes. The latex of E. characias is
mitogenic to T- and, to a lesser extent, to B-, lymphocytes, but the purified E.
characias lectin has no mitogenic activity. 6. The lectin from H. crepitans, but
not that from E. characias, inhibits protein synthesis by a rabbit reticulocyte

PMID: 6661180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

231: Biochem J  1983 Oct 1;215(1):141-5 

Isolation and partial characterization of a lectin from Euphorbia heterophylla

Nsimba-Lubaki M, Peumans WJ, Carlier AR.

An N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin was isolated from Euphorbia
heterophylla seeds by affinity chromatography on cross-linked arabinogalactan.
It is a dimeric protein of two identical subunits of Mr 32 000, and differs
structurally from all previously known Euphorbiaceae lectins. Its distribution
over the seed is typical in that it is merely confined to the primary axes.

PMID: 6626171 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

232: J Nat Prod  1983 Sep-Oct;46(5):723-31 

The dermatitis-producing constituents of Euphorbia hermentiana latex.

Lin LJ, Marshall GT, Kinghorn AD.

Five ingenane derivatives,
(1), 3-O-[(Z)-2-methyl-2-butenoyl]-5,16,20-O-triacetyl-16-hydroxyingenol (2),
3-O-[(Z)-2-methyl-2-butenoyl]-16,20-O-diacetyl-16-hydroxyingenol (3),
3-O-[(Z)-2-methyl-2-butenoyl]-20-O-acetylingenol (4), and
3-O-[(Z)-2-methyl-2-butenoyl]-16-O-acetyl-20-deoxy-16-hydroxyingenol (5) were
isolated with a new procedure that uses droplet counter-current chromatography,
from a dermatitis-producing fraction of the latex of Euphorbia hermentiana Lem.
The structures of the new compounds 2,3, and 5 were established by the
interpretation of their spectroscopic data and those of their hydrolytic and
acetylated derivatives.

PMID: 6655474 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

233: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek  1983 Apr;49(1):51-9 

Pichia euphorbiae sp. nov., a new haploid heterothallic yeast species.

van der Walt JP, Opperman A.

Representatives of an undescribed, haploid, heterothallic yeast species, Pichia
euphorbiae, have been recovered from insect-infested specimens of Euphorbia
ingens. The new species is considered to be another representative of the
apparently related group of heterothallic species, comprising Pichia
rhodanensis, Pichia wickerhamii, Pichia veronae, Pichia amylophila, Pichia
mississippiensis and Pichia meyerae. While no mating response was observed in
interspecific mixtures of the mating types of the new species with the mating
types of the first five mentioned species, a sexual response, manifested by the
formation of non-sporulating zygotes, was nevertheless detected with the mating
types of P. meyerae. Prototrophic hybrids obtained by crossing auxotrophic
mutants of the mating types of P. euphorbiae and P. meyerae were found to be
only partial recombinants. A description of the new species is given.

PMID: 6614897 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

234: Arch Biochem Biophys  1983 Feb 1;220(2):623-7 

Essential sulfhydryl groups in diamine oxidase from Euphorbia characias latex.

Floris G, Giartosio A, Rinaldi A.

Diamine oxidase from Euphorbia characias latex contains two sulfhydryl groups
per mole of dimeric enzyme. The sulfhydryl groups are unreactive in the native
enzyme but can be readily titrated by 4,4'-dithiodipyridine after protein
denaturation, or anaerobically in the presence of the amine substrate. In the
presence of both substrates (diamine and oxygen) they react sluggishly. The
sulfhydryl groups show different reactivity toward various reagents, but in
every case their modification inhibits catalytic activity. The insensitivity of
the native enzyme to specific reagents suggests that the sulfhydryl groups are
positioned in the interior of the protein and shielded from the solvent. Their
reactivity in the presence of the amine substrate could be attributed to a
conformational change occurring upon substrate binding or after substrate

PMID: 6401986 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

235: Planta Med  1982 Dec;46(4):215-8 

Skin irritant ingenol esters from Euphorbia esula.

Seip EH, Hecker E.

PMID: 7163415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

236: Arch Pharm (Weinheim)  1982 Dec;315(12):1026-32 

[Constituents of Euphorbiaceae, 7. 20-Deoxyingenol Monoesters and ingenol
diesters from Euphorbia biglandulosa Desf.]

[Article in German]

Falsone G, Crea AE, Noack EA.

PMID: 7159190 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

237: Eur J Biochem  1982 Oct;127(2):417-22 

Purification and properties of diamine oxidase from Euphorbia latex.

Rinaldi A, Floris G, Finazzi-Agro A.

A diamine oxidase has been purified to homogeneity from the latex of an
herbaceous shrub, Euphorbia characias. This enzyme has a relative molecular mass
of 144,000 and is composed of two identical subunits. It contain two Cu(II) and
two carbonyl-like groups per dimer. The purified enzyme is pink and shows a
broad absorption in the visible region centered at 480 nm, which is modified by
the addition of phenylhydrazine or semicarbazide. The electron paramagnetic
resonance spectrum is typical of copper(II) in a tetragonal symmetry. This
enzyme oxidizes putrescine and cadaverine at fairly high rate and, less
efficiently a few related compounds, but not histamine, spermine or spermidine.

PMID: 6814913 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

238: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol  1982;103(3):255-68 

On the active principles of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). IV. Skin irritant
and tumor promoting diterpene esters from Euphorbia ingens E.Mey.

Opferkuch HJ, Hecker E.

The irritant and tumor-promoting principles of the latex of Euphorbia ingens E.
Mey have been isolated together with several nonirritant compounds. The
Euphorbia factors I1, I5, and I6 are esters of ingenane-type poly-functional
diterpene alcohols. Euphorbia factor I1 is characterized as the 3-hexadecanoate
of the polyfunctional parent alcohol ingenol and Euphorbia factor I6 as the
3-deca-2.4.6-trienoic acid ester of ingenol. Euphorbia factor I5 is the
16-angelate-3-deca-2.4.6-trienoate of 16-hydroxyingenol. Nonirritant diterpenes
of the latex are I2, the ingenol-20-hexadecanoate - an isomer of Euphorbia
factor I1 - and I4, the 3.7.12-triacetate-8-nicotinate of the macrocyclic
lathyrane-type polyfunctional diterpene alcohol ingol. The diterpene alcohols
ingenol and 16-hydroxyingenol are inactive as irritants and tumor promoters of
mouse skin. Compared to croton oil factor A1 (TPA), the Euphorbia factor I1
exhibits about 1/10 of the irritant and tumor-promoting activity in mouse skin.
I1 shows no reasonable tumorigenic activity. Compared with I1, Eupohorbia
factors I5 and I6 are more potent irritants and less potent tumor promoters.

PMID: 7118989 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

239: J Ethnopharmacol  1982 Jan;5(1):91-112 

A neglected Mayan galactagogue - ixbut (Euphorbia lancifolia).

Rosengarten F Jr.

A herbal tea, made of leaves of ixbut (Euphorbia lancifolia Schlecht.), has been
used for several centuries by postpartum Mayan women in Guatemala to stimulate
and increase the flow of mother's milk. Ixbut, when mixed with cattle fodder, is
reputed to have increased milk yields in cows. To date, the active principle of
ixbut has never been isolated. However, this medicinal herb, a natural
galactagogue of Central American origin, would appear to be worthy of further
chemical and pharmacological study. The following illustrated article describes
the history and use of ixbut, and includes chromatographic analyses of dried
ixbut leaves from Guatemala.

Publication Types:
Historical Article

PMID: 7033669 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

240: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol  1981 Dec;27(6):894-902 

Testing for tumor promoters in Euphorbia lathyris: analysis of possible health

Bissell MJ, Nemethy EK, Riddle L, Calvin M.

PMID: 7337864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

241: Ann Ophthalmol  1981 Jun;13(6):739-40 

Euphorbia peplus latex keratoconjunctivitis.

Biedner BZ, Sachs U, Witztum A.

PMID: 7258972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

242: Cancer Lett  1981 Apr;12(3):175-80 

Combined effect of the extracts from Croton tiglium, Euphorbia lathyris or
Euphorbia tirucalli and n-butyrate on Epstein-Barr virus expression in human
lymphoblastoid P3HR-1 and Raji cells.

Ito Y, Kawanishi M, Harayama T, Takabayashi S.

The combined usage of n-butyrate and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)
or the oily extracts from Croton tiglium, Euphorbia lathyris or Euphorbia
tirucalli exerted a marked effect on induction of Epstein-Barr virus
(EBV)-associated early (EA) and viral capsid (VCA) antigens in EBV
genome-carrying human lymphoblastoid cell lines. In producer P3HR-1 cells, the
enhancing effect of the 2 components was additive both for EA and VCA, while in
non-producer Raji cells, a synergistic increase of EA was observed. The possible
implication of these findings relating to the cause of EBV-associated diseases
is discussed.

PMID: 6266651 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

243: J Pharm Sci  1981 Mar;70(3):329-31 

Dry column chromatographic procedure for rapid concentration of biological
activity in natural products fractionation.

Hokanson GC, Matyunas NJ.

A dry column chromatographic procedure is described. It allows for the rapid
concentration of biologically active materials in natural products
fractionation. The potential value of the technique is described, utilizing as
an example the separation of an anticancer active fraction obtained from
Euphorbia cyparissias.

PMID: 7264904 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

244: Contact Dermatitis  1981 Jan;7(1):19-22 

Irritant contact dermatitis from an ornamental Euphorbia.

Worobec SM, Hickey TA, Kinghorn AD, Soejarto DD, West D.

An ornamental succulent plant sold in many plant stores in the Chicago area has
been identified as Euphorbia hermentiana Lem. Open and closed patch testing
using undiluted latex from this species was performed on five Caucasian
volunteers. Open testing on flexor forearms resulted in irritant follicular
dermatitis, while closed testing to the flexor surfaces of both upper arms in
each subject produced bullae and vesiculation with residual desquamation and
hyperpigmentation. Dermatological signs persisted for over a week following
latex application.

PMID: 7249622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

245: Toxicon  1981;19(3):383-92 

Effects of a 4-deoxyphorbol triester from the latex sap of Euphorbia
biglandulosa Desf. on isolated spinach chloroplasts.

Santarius KA, Crea AE, Falsone G.

PMID: 7245219 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

246: Neoplasma  1981;28(5):555-8 

Tumor promoting and skin irritant diterpene esters of Euphorbia virgata latex.

Upadhyay R, Samiyeh R, Tafazuli A.

The mouse ear irritant latex of E. virgata, has been found to contain various
skin irritant and non-irritant esters of the diterpene ingenol. In
cocarcinogenic assay on dorsal back skin of NMRI mice, acetone extract of this
latex produces squamous cell papilloma. Using a combination of biologic and
chemical separation techniques one of the initiator-promotor for skin
carcinogenesis has been identified as 3-0-2 methyl-decanoyl ingenol.

PMID: 6458773 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

247: Experientia  1980 Oct 15;36(10):1206-7 

Constituents of Egyptian Euphorbiaceae. IX. Irritant and cytotoxic ingenane
esters from Euphorbia paralias L.

Sayed MD, Riszk A, Hammouda FM, El-Missiry MM, Williamson EM, Evans FJ.

The irritant and cytotoxic constituents of the latex of Euphorbia paralias L.
were separated from the hydrocarbon fraction by means of solvent partition. 3
new ingenane esters were identified from the toxic ether fraction. The major
compound was 3-angelyl-20-deoxyingenol and the 2 minor compounds were
3-hexanoyl-20-deoxyingenol and 3-angelyl-ingenol. These compounds were of a
similar potency to podophyllin in the inhibition of 3H-thymidine uptake by TLX/5
mouse lymphoma cells. In addition the compounds produced a persistent erythema
of the mouse ear in sub-microgram doses.

PMID: 7418805 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

248: Gann  1980 Aug;71(4):557-9 

Presence of a tumor-promoting factor in honey.

Upadhyay RR, Islampanah S, Davoodi A.

Honey samples collected from the Saidabad area of Azarbaijan province of Iran
were found to be moderately irritant, and this activity was associated with the
presence of tri-acylates of the diterpene ingenol, which are transferred from
the nectar of Euphorbia seguieriana Neck by honey bees to the honey. The
acylates of ingenol are known promoters of carcinogenesis.

PMID: 7429090 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

249: Clin Toxicol  1980 Apr;16(2):167-73 

Toxicity of fresh poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) to Sprague-Dawley rats.

Runyon R.

Fresh leaves and bracts of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) were fed to 46
Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were observed for 1 week for changes in weight
or behavior. The animals were then sacrificed in ether and examined for changes
in thyroid and adrenal weights. One group was also examined for damage to the
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. No lesions or other signs of intestinal damage
were observed. None of the groups showed any change in behavior or any
significant change in body weight or adrenal weight. Only one group showed a
significant increase in thyroid weight.

PMID: 7398206 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

250: Contact Dermatitis  1980 Apr;6(3):204-10 

Skin irritants of the sun spurge (Euphorbia helioscopia L.).

Schmidt RJ, Evans FJ.

Euphorbia helioscopia is a common herbaceous week found in the British Isles and
parts of Europe. It has been responsible for poisoning of livestock resulting in
severe inflammation particularly of mucous membranes and the eyes. Four esters
of 12-deoxyphorbol were isolated from the fresh aerial parts of the plant and
their irritant doses 50% (I.D.50) ascertained using female L.A.C.A. mice,
12-Deoxyphorbol-13-phenylacetate-20-acetate was found to be the major component
of the toxic fraction and occurred in yields of 0.0012% w/w. This compound was
also the most irritant substance isolated and exhibited an I.D.50 of
0.038microgram, and is accordingly considered to be responsible for the major
part of the toxicity of E. helioscopia. A high molecular weight aliphatic ester,
12-deoxyphorbol-13-dodecdienoate-20-acetate, was also obtained in low yields.
This compound exhibited an I.D.50 of 0.12microgram. The final two esters
obtained from the toxic fraction of the plant were the low molecular weight
homologues, 12-deoxyphorbol-13-[2-methyl-cis-2-butenoate]-20-acetate and
12-deoxyphorbol-13-[2-methyl-cis-2-butenoate]. These compounds exhibited I.D.50
of 3.09 and 0.72 microgram, respectively and were the least irritant of the
series of compounds isolated.

PMID: 7389328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

251: J Ethnopharmacol  1980 Mar;2(1):19-22 

Traditional medicine in health care.

Sayed MD.

The state of research on plants used in traditional medicine and its development
in Egypt is indicated by the number of scientific institutions devoted to this
problem: Universities, the National Research Centre, the Desert Institute and
the Horticulture Department of the Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, the use of
certain medicinal plants has been "industrialised', e.g., Ammi visnaga,
Cymbopogon proximus, Nigella sativa and Aloe vera. Other plants are under
investigation: Urginea maritima, Phytolacca americana and Euphorbia sp. (known
for its claimed antitumour properties), Glycyrrhiza glabra, Cynara scolymus and
Solanum laciniatum.

PMID: 7464176 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

252: Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd  1980 Mar;176(3):469-71 

[The effect of the sap of Euphorbiaceae on the eye]

[Article in German]

Lisch K.

Ocular inflammations caused by the latex of euphorbiaceae manifest themselves as
lid swelling, severe conjunctivitis, keratitis and iritis with hypopyon. As
therapy, the local application of corticosteroids is recommended. In severely
affected cases intravenous injections of Sandosten-Calcium and Solu-Dacortin
(Merck) are indicated. The caustic effect of euphorbia cyparissias is caused by
phorbol acid and phorbol acid ester. On the Canary Islands, the latex of
euphorbiaceae is quickly removed by drop application of the sap of aeonium
lindleyi, family crassulaceae. In the past, the sap of sempervivum tectorum
which also belongs to the crassulaceae, was used as a household remedy for
ocular inflammations.

PMID: 7421015 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

253: Planta Med  1980 Feb;38(2):151-4 

Screening of euphorbia from Azarbaijan for skin irritant activity and for

Upadhyay RR, Bakhtavar F, Mohseni H, Sater AM, Saleh N, Tafazuli A, Dizaji FN,
Mohaddes G.

PMID: 7367489 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

254: Toxicon  1980;18(2):165-74 

Inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosporylation by 4-deoxyphorbol triester,
a poisonous constituent of the latex sap of Euphorbia biglandulosa Desf.

Noack EA, Crea AE, Falsone G.

PMID: 7394805 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

255: Experientia  1979 Oct 15;35(10):1328-9 

Gibberellins and the break of bud dormancy in virus-infected stem cuttings of
Euphorbia pulcherrima.

Nath S, Mandahar CL, Gulati A.

Break in bud dormancy in virus-infected stem cuttings of Euphorbia pulcherrima
occurs because of the higher quantity of gibberellins present in them than in
healthy cuttings in the dormant period of the plant.

PMID: 499409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

256: Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh)  1979 Sep;45(3):181-91 

The succulent euphorbias of Nigeria. III. Structure and potency of the aromatic
ester diterpenes of Euphorbia poissonii Pax.

Evans FJ, Schmidt RJ.

The latex of Euphorbia poissonii was found to contain irritant aromatic
diterpene esters based upon resiniferonol, 12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-phorbol and
12-deoxyphorbol. Four resiniferonol esters,
]; 9,13,14-orthophenylacetyl-resiniferonol-20-0-acetate and
resiniferonol-14-0-phenylacetate-20-0-[m-methoxy-m'-hydroxy-phenylacetate], were
identified. Two further esters were identified as
12-deoxy-16-0-[2-methylbutyroyl]-phorbol-13-0-phenylacetate-20-0-acetate and
12-deoxy-16-0-[2-methylbutyroyl]-phorbol-13-0-phenylacetate. These compounds
represent the first aromatic esters of this parent diterpene to be obtained from
natural sources. The third group of compounds were identified as
12-deoxyphorbol-13-0-phenylacetate-20-0-acetate and
12-deoxyphorbol-13-0-phenylacetate. The irritant potency of the ten pure
compounds was obtained using a mouse ear method for assessment of the irritant
dose 50%.

PMID: 506740 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

257: Planta Med  1979 Jun;36(2):189-90 

Constituents of Egyptian Euphorbiaceae. VII. Further investigation of the
flavonoids of Euphorbia paralias L.

Rizk AM, Ahmed SS, Diab MA.

PMID: 461577 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

258: Experientia  1979 May 15;35(5):599-600 

Specific inhibition of formation of acid-fastness in mycobacteria by
3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid.

Kondo Y, Toida T, Kusano G, Imai J.

3,3'-Di-O-methylellagic acid obtained from Euphorbia adenochlora selectively
inhibited the formation of acid-fastness in mycobacteria without retardation of
their growth. Gross reductions in contents of wax D, cord factor and free
mycolic acids were found in the nonacid-fast bacilli compared with the normal

PMID: 87342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

259: Farm Zh  1979 May-Jun;(3):28-34 

[Antibacterial activity of preparations from the spurges, Euphorbia seguieriana
Neck., E. virgultosa Klok. and E. semivilliosa Prokh.]

[Article in Ukrainian]

Sobolieva VO, Honcharov OI.

PMID: 456524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

260: Planta Med  1979 Feb;35(2):193-4 

Chemical investigation of local plants. part II. triterpenoids of Euphorbia
wallichii Hk.f.

Rishi AK, George V, Kapoor R.

PMID: 419191 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

261: Am J Dis Child  1979 Jan;133(1):28-9 

Dermatitis after exposure to a garden plant (Euphorbia myrsinites).

Spoerke DG, Temple AR.

Six pediatric cases of erythematous papulovescicular skin eruptions were due to
exposure to Euphorbia myrsinites. These rashes may be confused with allergies,
infections, or other dermatoses. Symptoms followed two to eight hours after
exposure to the irritant sap, they increased in severity for an additional 12
hours, and they resolved within three to four days. No sequelae were noticed.
Treatment indicated was pain relief, prevention of infection, and reduction of

PMID: 760508 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

262: Yao Xue Xue Bao  1979;14(2):91-5 

[Studies on the active principles of Ze-Qi (Euphorbia helioscopia L.), a drug
used for chronic bronchitis (I) (author's transl)]

[Article in Chinese]

Ghen Y, Tang ZJ, Jiang FX, Zhang XX, Lao AN.

PMID: 506714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

263: J Nat Prod  1979 Jan-Feb;42(1):112-5 

Characterization of an irritant 4-deoxyphorbol diester from Euphorbia tirucalli.

Kinghorn AD.

Latex of Euphorbia tirucalli, collected in Colombia, yielded
12-O-2Z-4E-octadienoyl-4-deoxyphorbol-13-acetate (1), which exhibited an
irritant potency equivalent to that of the standard irritant,
phorbol-12-tetradecanoate-13-acetate, in a mouse ear test system. The
unsaturated 4-deoxyphorbol diesters recently reported in E. tirucalli grown in
South Africa were not observed in the present study.

PMID: 469552 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

264: Rev Bras Pesqui Med Biol  1978 Dec;11(6):345-51 

[Molluscicidal properties of the Euphorbia cotinifolia L (author's transl)]

[Article in Portuguese]

Pereira JP, de Souza CP, Mendes NM.

The hexanic extract from the leaves of Euphorbia cotinifolia L. has been
experimentally used as molluscicide against Biomphalaria glabrata. The extract
was fractionated and the most actives fractions were those of numbers 6 and 7.
The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 obtained using fraction 6 against adult
snails were 1,2 and 2,4 ppm; for the eggs they were 25,0 and 48,0 ppm. With
fraction 7 the lethal concentrations were 1,4 and 3,4 ppm for adult snails; for
newly hatched snails they were 4,8 and 8,0 ppm; for the eggs they were 13,0 and
31,0 ppm. In the field the hexanic extract was lethal for the snails in
concentrations of 20 ppm in stagnant water. Fractions 6 and 7 were lethal for S.
mansoni cercariae and to fish (Lebistes reticulatus) in concentrations below 10
ppm. For mice the extract did not display any toxity in concentrations of 600

PMID: 751112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

265: Zentralbl Bakteriol [Orig A]  1978 Nov;242(1):93-9 

A comparative study of antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from patients
and soil of ornamental plants in the immunodiffusion test.

Staib F, Folkens U, Tompak B, Abel T, Thiel D.

The strikingly frequent and constant presence of Aspergillus fimigatus in the
soil of potted ornamental plants kept in private houses and hospitals has been
the reason for studying the antigens of the strains found from the diagnostic
and epidemiological angles. Culture-filtrate antigens of A. fumigatus strains
isolated from the soil of 4 different ornamental plants, epiphyllum (Epiphyllum
truncatum), orange tree (Citrus sinensis), Alpine rose (Azalea indica) and
Christmas flower (Euphorbia pulcherrima), were compared, in the immunodiffusion
test, with antigens of A. fumigatus strains from aspergillosis patients prepared
in an identical way. When tested against 8 different sera from different
aspergillosis patients there was a good coincidence of results. Control sera
from patients suffering from diseases other than aspergillosis, no
false-positive reactions could be observed. The findings are discussed in
respect of diagnosis and epidemiology.

PMID: 83753 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

266: Pharmazie  1978 Aug;33(8):540-1 

Constituents of Egyptian Euphorbiaceae. Part 6: phytochemical investigation of
Euphorbia geniculata Jacq. and E. prostrata Ait.

Rizk AM, Hammouda FM, El-Nasr MM, El-Missiry MM.

PMID: 724788 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

267: Tumori  1978 Feb 28;64(1):99-102 

Cocarcinogenic and irritant factors of Euphorbia esula L. latex.

Upadhyay RR, Bakhtavar F, Ghaisarzadeh M, Tilabi J.

The latex of (Euphorbia esula) has been found to contain highly skin irritant
and inflammatory ingenol-3delta 2,4,6,8,10 pentene tetradecanoate and another
factor, ingenol-3-dodecanoate, which is less irritating but which can be
responsible for the cocarcinogenic activity exhibited by the latex preparation
in the mice back skin experiment.

PMID: 653835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

268: Farm Zh  1978;(2):89-91 

[Comparative study of herbal infusions of the spurges, Euphorbia seguieriana, E.
virgata and E. semivillosa, obtained by different methods]

[Article in Ukrainian]

Soboleva VO, Chagovets RK, Solon'ko VM.

PMID: 658352 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

269: Lloydia  1978 Jan-Feb;41(1):73-5 

A note on the isolation and identification of two pharmacologically active
constituents of Euphorbia pilulifera.

el-Naggar L, Beal JL, Parks LM, Salman KN, Patil P.

PMID: 642726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

270: Toxicon  1978;16(1):51-7 

The irritant toxins of Blue Euphorbia (Euphorbia coerulescens Haw).

Evans FJ.

PMID: 622726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

271: Experientia  1977 Sep 15;33(9):1197-8 

Candletoxins A and B, 2 new aromatic esters of 12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-phorbol, from
the irritant latex of Euphoria poisonii Pax.

Schmidt RJ, Evans FJ.

2 new aromatic esters of 12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-phorbol, known as candletoxins A
and B, were isolated from the irritant latex of Euphorbia poisonii Pax. Compound
A was identified as
12-deoxy-phorbol-13-O-phenylacetate-16-O-alpha-methyl-butyrate-20-acetate, and
compound B was the C-20 desacetyl analogue.

PMID: 891875 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

272: Planta Med  1977 Sep;32(2):177-80 

Constituents of Egyptian Euphorbiaceae IV investigation of Euphorbia indica.

Rizk AM, Rimpler H.

PMID: 905435 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

273: Experientia  1977 Aug 15;33(8):986-8 

New highly irritant euphorbia factors from latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L.

Furstenberger G, Hecker E.

From the latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L. growing in Madagascar, 5 new euphorbia
factors were isolated. They were characterized as 13-O-acetyl-12-O-acylphorbol-
and 12-O-acetyl-13-O-acylphorbol derivatives carrying homologous conjugated
unsaturated fatty acids as acyl groups. Furthermore, 2 mixtures of homologous
3-O-acylingenol derivatives are obtained carrying the same type of unsaturated
fatty acids. Due to their highly unsaturated acyl groups all Euphorbia factors
or factor groups isolated are highly sensitive to autoxidation.

PMID: 891836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

274: Planta Med  1977 Aug;32(1):1-8 

Triterpenes in latex of Euphorbia pulcherrima.

Baas WJ.

PMID: 905409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

275: Pharmazie  1977 Aug-Sep;32(8-9):538 

Flavonoids of Euphorbia geniculata and Euphorbia prostata.

Ismail SI, el-Missiry MM, Hammouda FM, Rizk AM.

PMID: 594128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

276: Pharmazie  1977 Aug-Sep;32(8-9):534-5 

Crystalline principles of Euphorbia terracina L.

Khafagy SM, Salam NA, Mohamed YA, Mahmoud ZF.

PMID: 594124 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

277: Anaesth Intensive Care  1977 Feb;5(1):30-5 

Historical note: Drumine--a new Australian local anaesthetic.

Bailey RJ.

An article in the Australiasian Medical Gazette of October, 1886 indicates the
method of extraction, experimentation and therapeutic application of an active
principle, prepared from Euphorbia Drummondii. Further correspondence is noted,
refining the method of extraction, reporting cases, answering criticisms, and
announcing eventually, drumine's commercial preparation. Despite enthusiastic
support, the drug soon disappears from the therapeutic scene.

Publication Types:
Historical Article

PMID: 320904 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

278: Planta Med  1976 Oct;30(2):196-7 

Irritant constituents of Iranian plants. Ingenol from Euphorbia seguieriana.

Upadhyay RR, Zarintan MH, Ansarin M.

PMID: 981395 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

279: Experientia  1976 Sep 15;32(9):1196-7 

Tumor promoting constituent of Euphorbia serrata L. latex.

Upadhyay RR, Ansarin M, Zarintan MH, Shakui P.

Euphorbia serrata latex has initially ingenol-3-palmitate, which by action of
silica gel is converted to ingenol-20-palmitate. The former is responsible for
the irritant and cocarcinogenic activity of the latex on mouse ear and on mice
back skin.

PMID: 971764 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

280: Planta Med  1976 Aug;30(1):32-4 

Isolation of ingenol from the irritant and cocarcinogenic latex of Euphorbia

Upadhyay RR, Zarintan MH, Ansarin M.

PMID: 959388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

281: Med J Aust  1976 Jun 12;1(24):928 

Home treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

Weedon D, Chick J.

The sap of the plant Euphorbia peplus is not uncommonly used as a home treatment
for warts and basal cell carcinomas. This report documents its successful use on
a biopsy-proven basal cell carcinoma.

PMID: 979751 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

282: Pharmazie  1976 Jun;31(6):405 

Constitutents of Egyptian Euphorbiaceae. Part 2: Flavonoids of Euphorbia

Rizk AM, Youssef AM, Diab MA, Salem HM.

PMID: 959303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

283: Planta Med  1976 May;29(3):301-4 

Phytochemical study of Euphorbia paralias.

Khafagy SM, Gharbo SA, Abdel Salam NA.

PMID: 948535 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

284: J Protozool  1976 May;23(2):238-41 

Axenic cultivation of Phytomonas davidi Lafont (Trypanosomatidae), a symbiote of
laticiferous plants (Euphorbiaceae).

Mcghee RB, Postell FJ.

Phytomonas davidi (Trypanosomatidae) originally discovered by Lafont in 1909 on
the island of Mauritius was rediscovered in Euphorbia cyathophora in Florida.
Successful cultures were established in diphasic medium consisting of duck blood
agar and modified Phillips' medium as overlay. Optimal growth was obtained when
Mansour's medium was used as overlay and poorest growth when Cowperthwaite's
medium buffered at pH 5.0 was utilized for this purpose. Marked changes tending
toward choanomastigotes rather than the elongate twisted promastigotes were
observed in cultures.

PMID: 933080 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

285: Dtsch Med Wochenschr  1976 Apr 9;101(15):567-70 

[Occupational allergy due to inhalation of pollen from Euphorbia fulgens Karw
(author's transl)]

[Article in German]

Hausen BM, Ketels-Harken H, Schulz KH.

The increased cultivation and sales of Euphorbia fulgens Karw., originating in
Mexico, has in the last few years led to occupational allergy, type I, in three
growers manifesting itself as nasal disease, tracheobronchitis or bronchial
asthma. Intracutaneous tests with pollen extracts were positive in all cases,
even at high dilution. A specific hyposensitisation regimen, conducted over five
months, gave highly promising results in one patient who had no symptoms in the
following season, despite similar exposure. Such sensitisation by pollens of
Euphorbia fulgens Karw. is probably widespread among growers and florists. The
allergen is found only in the pollen, not in other parts of the plant. There is
no relation to the toxic substances in the milk-sap of this plant family

PMID: 1261372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

286: Science  1976 Feb 13;191(4227):571-2 

Antileukemic principles isolated from euphorbiaceae plants.

Kupchan SM, Uchida I, Branfman AR, Dailey RG Jr, Fei BY.

Extracts of Euphorbia esula L. and Croton tiglium L., two members of the
Euphorbiaceae which have been used widely in folk medicine for treating cancers,
showed antileukemic activity against the P-388 lymphocytic leukemia in mice.
Systematic fractionation of the extract of Euphorbia esula L. led to
characterization of a major antileukemic component as the new diterpenoid
diester, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate. Similar fractionation of Croton oil led to
characterization of phorbol 12-tiglate 13-decanoate as an active principle.

PMID: 1251193 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

287: J Ultrastruct Res  1976 Jan;54(1):53-8 

Protein bodies in the nucellus of Euphorbia helioscopia.

Gori P.

PMID: 1249847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

288: Planta Med  1975 Dec;28(4):326-35 

A biological screen of selected species of the genus Euphorbia for skin irritant

Kinghorn AD, Evans FJ.

PMID: 1208681 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

289: Z Krebsforsch Klin Onkol Cancer Res Clin Oncol  1975 Nov 25;84(3):325-44 

On the active principles of the spurge family. III. Skin irritant and
cocarcinogenic factors from the caper spurge.

Adolf W, Hecker E.

The toxic and irritant principles of the seed oil and of the latex of the caper
spurge (Euphorbia lathyris L.) were isolated together with several non irritants
of similar chemical structure. From the seed oil two irritant Euphorbia factors
L5 and L6 and from the latex a mixture of irritant Euphorbia factors were
obtained. Euphorbia factor L5 was identified as 3-hexadecanoate of the new
tetracyclic, poly-functional diterpene parent alcohol ingenol. Euphorbia factor
L6 most probably is the 3-tetradeca-2,4,6,8,10-penta-enoic acid ester of
ingenol. The mixture of Euphorbia factors was shown to contain esters of ingenol
and of 16-hydroxy-ingenol, respectively, each containing a long chain
unsaturated fatty acid, most probably in 3-position. The non irritants from the
seed oil comprise ingenol-20-hexadecanoate (compound L4) and several esters of
macrocyclic diterpenes of the new lathyrol type (compounds L1-L3, L8, and
possibly L7). Compound L4 is a positional isomer of Euphorbia factor L5 and most
probably an artefact formed during the isolation procedure. The macrocyclic
diterpenes are of interest as possible intermediates in the biogenesis of
tetracyclic diterpene parents of cocarcinogenic esters. The parent alcohols
ingenol and 16-hydroxy-ingenol are inactive irritants. As compared to croton oil
factor A1 (TPA), Euphorbia factor L5 exhibits about 1/10 of its irritant
activity on the ear and about 1/10 of its cocarcinogenic activity on the back
skin of mice. As an irritant Euphorbia factor L6 shows about 1/5 of the activity
of A1. Structure/activity relationships of ingenol and phorbol esters and the
possible role of cocarcinogens of plant origin as second order carcinogenic risk
factors are discussed.

PMID: 128221 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

290: Planta Med  1975 Jun;27(4):387-94 

Phytochemical study of Euphorbia peplus.

Khafagy SM, Gharbo SA, Salam NA.

PMID: 1161908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

291: Planta Med  1975 Jun;27(4):301-3 

[Flavonol glycosides from Euphorbia helioscopia, E. stricta, E. verrucosa and E.
dulcis (author's transl)]

[Article in German]

Pohl R, Janistyn B, Nahrstedt A.

PMID: 1161897 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

292: Pharmazie  1975 Jun;30(6):402-3 

Spectrophotometric estimation of individual flavone glycosides in three
Euphorbia species.

Abdel-Salam NA, El-Sayed M, Khafagy SM.

Two spectrophotometric methods (conventional and differential) are carried out
for the estimation of flavone glycosides (hyperoside and/or
kaempferol-3-beta-glucoside) in Euphorbia paralias L., and Euphorbia helioscopia
L. The glycosides are extracted with methanol from the aerial parts of the
different Euphorbia species, separated on silica gel chromatoplates, and eluted
by refluxing with methanol (80%). The absorbance value (conventional method) and
the delta absorbance value (differential method) of the prepared glycosidal
solutions are measured. The results of both methods are of conveinent

PMID: 1161795 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

293: J Pharm Pharmacol  1975 May;27(5):329-33 

Skin irritants of Euphorbia fortissima.

Kinghorn AD, Evans FJ.

By means of a combination of partition and chromatographic methods six irritant
constituents were isolated from the fresh latex of Euphorbia fortissima.
Compounds A-D were di-esters of the common parent diterpene 12-deoxyphorbol, and
compounds E and F were mono-esters of the same diterpene. The fresh latex had an
irritant dose 50% (ID50) on mice of 0-64 mug mul- minus 1. Compounds A-D are
short-acting irritants reaching a maximum activity within 4 h of application to
the skin, whilst the monoesters maintained potent irritant effects for up to 24
h. Selective hydrolysis of the di-esters at the C-20 primary ester group also
produced mono-esters of greater potency after 24 h. An increase in the length of
the fatty acid located at C-13 produced greater biological activity in both the
mono- and di-ester groups.

PMID: 239133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

294: Acta Pol Pharm  1975;32(6):703-8 

[Quercetin derivatives of Euphorbia lucida W.K]

[Article in Polish]

Burzanska Z.

PMID: 1211210 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

295: Contact Dermatitis  1975;1(2):128 

Petty spurge (Euphorbia peplus L.).

Calnan CD.

St. John's Hospital, London, Great Britain.

PMID: 233888 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

296: Planta Med  1974 Sep;26(2):190-2 

[Flavonol-glycosides from Euphorbia sequieriana (author's transl)]

[Article in German]

Pohl R, Janistyn B.

PMID: 4409589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

297: Z Naturforsch [C]  1974 Sep-Oct;29C(9-10):529-31 

Constituents of Egyptian euphorbiaceae. I. Triterpenoids and related substances
of Euphorbia paralias.

Rizk AM, Youssef AM, Diab MA, Salem HM.

PMID: 4278041 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

298: Sov J Ecol  1974 Jul;4(5):373-9 

Leafless euphorbia on Rajasthan rock.

Sen DN, Chawan DD.

PMID: 4432132 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

299: Acta Pharm Suec  1974 May;11(2):185-90 

Chemical examination of Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss.

Aynehchi Y, Kiumehr N.

PMID: 4421022 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

300: Planta Med  1974 Feb;25(1):98-9 

[On the presence of Rhamnetine in the genus Euphorbia. A correction (author's

[Article in German]

Janistyn B, Nahrstedt A, Pohl R.

PMID: 4818019 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

301: Vestn Dermatol Venerol  1974;48(3):85-6 

[Dermatitis caused by a decorative plant, Euphorbia variegata]

[Article in Russian]

Samokhval GT, Krivchak GG.

PMID: 4830662 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

302: Z Krebsforsch Klin Onkol Cancer Res Clin Oncol  1974;81(3-4):193-10 

[On the active principles of the spurge family. II. Skin irritant and
cocarcinogenic factors from Euphorbia triangularis Desf. (author's transl)]

[Article in German]

Gschwendt M, Hecker E.

PMID: 4279515 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

303: Z Krebsforsch Klin Onkol Cancer Res Clin Oncol  1973 Dec 28;80(4):335-50 

[On the biologically active compounds of euphorbiaceae. I. Skinirritant and
cocarcinogenic factors from Euphorbia cooperi N.E.Br (author's transl)]

[Article in German]

Gschwendt M, Hecker E.

PMID: 4273892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

304: J Pharm Pharmacol  1973 Dec;25:Suppl:145P-146 

Proceedings: A screening procedure for Euphorbia co-carcinogenic irritants.

Evans FJ, Kinghorn AD.

PMID: 4150549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

305: Planta Med  1973 Oct;24(2):145-7 

[Isolation and identification of flavonol glycosides from Euphorbia exigua and
Euphorbia peplus. 7. Flavonoids indigenous to Euphorbia]

[Article in German]

Dumkow K, Pohl R.

PMID: 4765452 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

306: Farm Zh  1973 Jul-Aug;4:67-70 

[Pharmacology of total flavonoids from Euphorbia palustris L]

[Article in Ukrainian]

Sila VI, Kigel' TB, Bondarenko OM.

PMID: 4767380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

307: Am J Ophthalmol  1972 Oct;74(4):634-7 

Euphorbia royleana latex keratitis.

Sofat BK, Sood GC, Chandel RD, Mehrotra SK.

PMID: 5075134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

308: J Pharm Sci  1972 Jun;61(6):954-7 

Preliminary phytochemical investigation of Euphorbia millii.

Pancorbo S, Hammer RH.

PMID: 5046121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

309: J Pharm Sci  1972 Feb;61(2):292-3 

Chemical examination of Euphorbia myrsinitis Linn.

Aynehchi Y, Mojtabaii M, Yazdizadeh.

PMID: 5059805 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

310: Experientia  1971 Dec 15;27(12):1393-4 

Further new diterpene esters from the irritant and cocarcinogenic seed oil and
latex of the caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris L.).

Adolf W, Hecker E.

PMID: 5144835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

311: Br J Ophthalmol  1971 Dec;55(12):856-7 

Injury to the eye by the sap of Euphorbia royleana.

Sood GC, Sofat BK, Chandel RD.

PMID: 5159815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

312: Farm Zh  1971 Nov-Dec;26(6):46-8 

[Euphorbia palustris and stepposa flavonoids and their pharmacological

[Article in Ukrainian]

Bondarenko OM, Chagovets RK, Litvinenko VI, Obolentseva GV, Syla VI.

PMID: 5150542 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

313: Farm Zh  1971 Sep-Oct;26(5):78-81 

[Effect of total Euphorbia sequiriana flavonoid on the cardiovascular system and
intestinal smooth muscle]

[Article in Ukrainian]

Sila VI, Lavrushina TT.

PMID: 5150838 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

314: Toxicon  1971 Jul;9(3):301-2 

Euphorbia pulcherrima: toxicity to rats.

Stone RP, Collins WJ.

PMID: 5092399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

315: Indian J Dermatol  1971 Apr;16(3):57-9 

Clinical studies of Euphorbia acaulis, Rox b. in cases of eczema--a preliminary

Agrawal DK, Chandra J, Raju TV.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 4935910 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

316: Planta Med  1971 Feb;19(3):197-202 

[Flavonolglycosides from Euphorbia myrsinitis. Their isolation and
identification. 6. Flavonoids of native Euphorbiacae]

[Article in German]

Dumkow K.

PMID: 5547621 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

317: Vestn Dermatol Venerol  1970 Jun;44(6):67-9 

[Dermatitis due to Euphorbia rigida M.B]

[Article in Russian]

Smirnov LD, Efremov AI.

PMID: 5496838 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

318: Planta Med  1970 Mar;18(2):114-29 

[Flavonol glycosides of Euphorbia amygdaloides and their quantitative
determination at various stages of plant development. 5. Flavonoids of native

[Article in German]

Muller R, Pohl R.

PMID: 5439745 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

319: Tetrahedron Lett  1970 Feb;8:567-70 

Tumor-promoting compounds from Euphorbia cooperi di- and triesters of

Gschwendt M, Hecker E.

PMID: 5417593 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

320: Chem Ber  1970;103(11):3678-83 

[Synthesis of glucuronides in the flavonoid series. II. Isolation of
kaempferol-3-beta-D-glucuronide from Euphorbia esula L]

[Article in German]

Wagner H, Danninger H, Seligmann O, Nogradi M, Farkas L, Farnsworth N.

PMID: 5522586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

321: Tetrahedron Lett  1969 Sep;40:3509-12 

Tumor promoting compounds from Euphorbia triangularis: mono- and diesters of

Gschwendt M, Hecker E.

PMID: 5820946 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

322: Z Naturforsch B  1969 Mar;24(3):358 

[Kaempferol-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucuronide, principal flavonoids of
Euphorbia lathyris L. and their separation on acetylated polyamide]

[Article in German]

Dumkow K.

PMID: 4388752 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

323: Bull Soc Med Afr Noire Lang Fr  1969;14(1):237-42 

[Note on 2 African drugs with confirmed amebicidal properties: Holarrhens
floribunda and Euphorbia hirta]

[Article in French]

Kerharo J.

PMID: 5399292 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

324: Acta Chem Scand  1969;23(10):3609 

New constituents of Euphorbia resinifera Berg.

Boe JE, Winsnes R, Nordal A, Bernatek E.

PMID: 5381552 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

325: J Pharm Sci  1968 Jun;57(6):933-9 

Euphorbia esula L. (Euphorbiaceae). I. Preliminary phytochemical and biological

Farnsworth NR, Wagner H, Horhammer L, Horhammer HP, Fong HH.

PMID: 5671340 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

326: Z Naturforsch B  1968 May;23(5):659-63 

[m-Hydroxyphenylglycine and 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, 2 new amino acids from
the latex of Euphorbia helioscopia L]

[Article in German]

Muller P, Schutte HR.

PMID: 4385921 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

327: Z Naturforsch B  1968 Apr;23(4):491-3 

[1-Methyl-6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid in the
milky juice of Euphorbia myrsinites L]

[Article in German]

Muller P, Schutte HR.

PMID: 4386046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

328: Farm Zh  1968;23(1):60-4 

[Flavonoids of Euphorbia stepposa]

[Article in Ukrainian]

Sotnikova O, Chagovets RK.

PMID: 5699876 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

329: J Pharm Sci  1967 Sep;56(9):1184-5 contd 

Chemical study of the latex, stems, bracts, and flowers of "Christmas Flower"
(Euphorbia pulcherrima). I.

Dominguez XA, Garcia Delgado J, De Lourdes Maffey M, Mares JG, Rombold C.

PMID: 6049711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

330: Pol Tyg Lek  1967 May 1;22(18):671-2 

[Acute conjunctivitis and keratitis due to the sap of Euphorbia marginata]

[Article in Polish]

Szafran L.

PMID: 6078334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

331: J Exp Med Sci  1967 Mar;10(4):79-81 

Study of the laxative action of Euphorbia lathyris seed oil.

Dey CD.

PMID: 5592106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

332: Indian J Med Res  1967 Jan;55(1):73-9 

Preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Euphorbia
dracunculoides, Lam.

Prasad DN, Gode KD, Singh RS, Das PK.

PMID: 6036055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

333: Farm Zh  1967;22(4):86-90 

[Polyphenol compounds of Euphorbia palustris]

[Article in Ukrainian]

Sotnikova OM, Chagovets RK, Litvinenko VI.

PMID: 5600230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

334: Bull Chem Soc Jpn  1966 Nov;39(11):2532-4 

A chemical examination of Euphorbia hirta Linn.

Gupta DR, Garg SK.

PMID: 5978708 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

335: Naturwissenschaften  1966 Jul;53(14):362 

[Quercetin-3-glucuronide and camphorol-3-glucuronide, main flavonoids in
Euphorbia cyparissias L.]

[Article in German]

Stadtmann H, Pohl R.

PMID: 5993457 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

336: Yakugaku Zasshi  1966 Jun;86(6):530-3 

[Constituents of Euphorbia watanabei. 1.]

[Article in Japanese]

Takemoto T, Ishiguro T.

PMID: 6010722 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

337: Yakugaku Zasshi  1966 Jun;86(6):528-30 

[Constituents of Euphorbia adenochlora. 1.]

[Article in Japanese]

Takemoto T, Kondo Y, Ishiguro T.

PMID: 6010721 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]